Select Clean Energy Policy References

The following publications, websites, web pages and other resources are cited in the Clean Energy Policy Briefs.

Acosta, Lillith A., Damasa B. Magcale-Macandog, K. S. Kavi Kumar, Xuefeng Cui, Elena A. Eugenio, Paula, Beatrice M. Macandog, Arnold R. Salvacion, and Jemimah Mae A. Eugenio. 2015. The Role of Bioenergy in Energy-Food Ecosystem Nexus in Asia. APN Global Change Perspectives Policy Brief No. LCD-03. Kobe: Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research.

ADB (Asian Development Bank). 2013. Assessment of the Greater Mekong Subregion Energy Sector Development: Progress, Prospects, and Regional Investment Priorities. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank.

Alberici, Sacha, and Carlo Hamelinck. 2010. Annotated Example of a GHG Calculation Using the EU Renewable Energy Directive Methodology. Project number PEGENLO83540. London: Ecofys.

Andersson, K. 2015. Bioenergy: The Swedish Experience. Stockholm: Svebio.

APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation). 2013. APEC Energy Overview 2013. Asian Pacific Energy Research Centre.

AWEA (American Wind Energy Association). 2014. Federal Wind Energy Policy.

Australia Office of Environment and Heritage. “NABERS: National Australian Built Environment Rating System.”

Azuela, Gabriela Elizondo, and Luiz Augusto Barroso. 2011. Design and Performance of Policy Instruments to Promote the Development of Renewable Energy: Emerging Experience in Selected Developing Countries. Paper number 22. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Group.

Bardouille, Pepukaye, Patrick Avato, Jeremy Levin, Alexios Pantelias, and Hendrik EngelmannPilger. 2012. From Gap to Opportunity: Business Models for Scaling Up Energy Access. Washington, D.C.: International Finance Corporation.

Bipartisan Policy Center. 2011. Reassessing Renewable Energy Subsidies: Issue Brief. Washington, D.C.: Bipartisan Policy Center.

Bird, Lori, Caroline Chapman, Jeff Logan, Jenny Sumner, and Walter Short. 2010. Evaluating Renewable Portfolio Standards and Carbon Cap Scenarios in the U.S. Electric Sector. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

BNEF (Bloomberg New Energy Finance). 2014. Climatescope 2014. New York, NY: Bloomberg.

Boekhoudt, Andre, and Lars Behrendt. 2014. Taxes and Incentives for Renewable Energy. KPMG International Cooperative.

Bowen, Alex. 2011. The Case for Carbon Pricing: Policy Brief. London: Grantham Research Institute in Climate Change and the Environment.

BPIE (Buildings Performance Institute Europe). 2011. Europe’s Buildings Under the Microscope: A Country-by-Country Review of the Energy Performance of Buildings. Milwaukee: Johnson Controls.

Brown, Adam, and Simon Muller, 2011. Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Best Practice. Paris, France: International Energy Agency.

Brown, Phillip. 2011. Solar Projects: DOE Section 1705 Loan Guarantees. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.

Brunes, Elke, and Dörte Ohlhorst. 2011. “Wind Power Generation in Germany: A Transdisciplinary View on the Innovation Biography.” The Journal of Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies 10:1.

Bruton, Tom, Steve Luker, Fred Tottenham, and Paddy Donovan. 2012. District Heating as an Enabling Technology for Biomass in the Western Region. Ballaghaderreen, Ireland: Regional Approaches to Stimulating Local Renewable Energy Solutions.

C2ES (Center for Climate and Energy Solutions). 2013. Options and Considerations for a Federal Carbon Tax. Arlington, VA: C2ES.

C40 Cities. 2011. “Case Study: 98% of Copenhagen City Heating Supplied by Waste Heat.” Copenhagen: C40 Cities.

Chile Ministry of Energy. 2012. National Energy Strategy 2012-2030. Santiago, Chile: Ministry of Energy, Government of Chile.

Chum, Helena L., Francisco E. B. Nigro, Robert McCormick, Gregg T. Beckham, Joaquim E. A. Seabra, Jack Saddler, Ling Tao, Ethan Warner, and Ralph P. Overend. 2015. “Conversion Technologies for Biofuels and their Use.” In Bioenergy and Sustainability: Bridging the Gaps, edited by Glaucio M. Souza, Reynaldo L. Victoria, Carolos A. Joly, and Luciano M. Verdade, 374–467. Paris: Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment.

Cochran, Jaquelin, Lori Bird, Jenny Heeter, and Douglas J. Arent. 2012. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Cory, K.S., and B.G. Swezey. 2007. Renewable Portfolio Standards in the States: Balancing the Goals and Implementation Strategies. NREL/TP-670-41409. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Couture, Toby D., David Jacobs, Wilson Rickerson, and Victoria Healey. 2015. The Next Generation of Renewable Electricity Policy: How Rapid Change Is Breaking Down Conventional Policy Categories. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Couture, Toby D., Karlynn Cory, Claire Kreycik, and Emily Williams. 2010. A Policymaker’s Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Cox, Sadie, and Sean Esterly. 2016a. Renewable Electricity Standards: Good Practices and Design Considerations. NREL/TP-7A40-65507. Golden, CO: Clean Energy Solutions Center.

———. 2016b. Feed-in Tariffs: Good Practices and Design and Considerations. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-65503.

Cox, Sadie, Suzanne Tegen, Ian Baring-Gould, Frank A. Oteri, Sean Esterly, Trudy Forsyth, and Ruth Baranowski. 2015. Policies to Support Wind Power Deployment: Key Considerations and Good Practices. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-64177.

Cox, Sadie, Terri Walters, Sean Esterly, and Sarah Booth. 2015. Solar Power: Policy Overview and Good Practices. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-64178.

Danish Energy Agency. 2014. Procedures and Permits for Offshore Wind Parks.

DEA/DBDH (Danish Energy Agency and Danish Board of District Heating). n.d. District heating: Danish and Chinese Experience. Copenhagen: Danish Energy Agency.

DECC (UK Department of Energy and Climate Change). 2008. Microgeneration Installation Standard: MSC 001, Installer Certification Scheme Requirements. London: Department of Energy and Climate Change.

Dehue, Bart, Liliana Gamba, Gemma Toop, Radhika Murti, Nadine McCormick, Niels Wielaard, and Stephan Mantel. 2011. Inventory of Data Sources and Methodologies to Help Economic Operators Identify Land Status: Relating to EU Sustainability Criteria for Biofuels and Bioliquids. Project number: PEGENLO83540. Utrecht, Netherlands: Ecofys.

Devenyi, Roland, and Irina Mladenov. 2012. International Markets for Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs). Cambridge, MA: Sustainability Roundtable, Inc.

DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 2009. Loan Guarantee Solicitation Announcement. Washington, DC: DOE.

———. 2014. Soft Costs of Solar Deployment. Washington, DC: DOE.

———. 2015. Achieving Energy Savings and Emission Reductions from Building Energy Codes: A Primer for State Planning. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy.

DSIRE. 2016. Renewable Energy Standard. Last modified March 18.

Eberhard, Anton, Joel Kolker, and James Leigland. 2014. South Africa’s Renewable Energy IPP Procurement Program: Success Factors and Lessons. Public Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility.

EC (European Commission). 2016. “Sustainability Criteria.” Last modified April 20.

EPA-CHP (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Combined Heat and Power Partnership). 2016. Portfolio Standards and the Promotion of Combined Heat and Power. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

EERE (U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy). “Building Energy Codes Program: Toolkit Definitions.”

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2015. Energy and Environment Guide to Action: State Policies and Best Practices for Advancing Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, and Combined Heat and Power. 2015 edition. Washington, D.C.: United States Environmental Protection Agency.

Eisentraut, Anselm. 2010. Sustainable Production of Second-generation Biofuels: Potential and Perspectives in Major Economies and Developing Countries. Paris: International Energy Agency.

Endres, Jody, Rocio Diaz-Chavez, Stephen R. Kaffka, Luc Pelkmans, Joaquim E.A. Seabra, and Arnaldo Walter. 2015. “Sustainability Certification.” In Bioenergy and Sustainability: Bridging the Gaps, edited by Glaucio M. Souza, Reynaldo L. Victoria, Carolos A. Joly, and Luciano M. Verdade, 660–680. Paris: Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment.

Epp, Baerbel. 2010. “New Incentive Programme in Mauritius: Rebates for 50,000 Systems in Five Years.” Solar Thermal World, March 1.

Ericsson, Karin. 2009. Introduction and Development of the Swedish District Heating Systems: Critical Factors and Lessons Learned. Freiburg, Germany: RES-H Policy Project.

Eurostat. “Glossary: Final Energy Consumption.”

Evans, M., and E. Douraeva. 2004. IEA (International Energy Agency) and OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2004. Coming in from the Cold: Improving District Heating Policy in Transition Economies. Paris: International Energy Agency.

Falconer, Angela, and Gianleo Frisari. 2012. San Giorgio Group Case Study: Ouarzazate I CSP. Climate Policy Initiative.

Ferroukhi, Rabia, Arslan Khalid, Alvaro Lopez-Peña, and Michael Renner. 2015. Renewable Energy and Jobs: Annual Review 2015. Abu Dhabi: International Renewable Energy Agency.

Flavin, Christopher, and Molly Hull Aeck. n.d. Energy for Development: The Potential Role of Renewable Energy in Meeting Millennium Development Goals. Prepared by the Worldwatch Institute for the Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century. Paris, France: REN21 Secretariat.

Foust, Thomas D., Doug Arent, Isaias de Carvalho Macedo, Jose Goldemberg, Chanakya Hoysala, Rubens Maciel Filho, Francisco E. B. Nigro, Tom L. Richard, Jack Saddler, Jon Samseth, and Chris R. Somerville. 2015. “Energy security.” In Bioenergy and Sustainability: Bridging the Gaps, edited by Glaucio M. Souza, Reynaldo L. Victoria, Carolos A. Joly, and Luciano M. Verdade, 60–89. Paris: Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment.

Frisari, Gianleo, and Angela Falconer. 2013. San Giorgio Group Case Study: Ouarzazate I CSP Update. Climate Policy Initiative.

GBPN (Global Buildings Performance Network). “Building Energy Codes Portal.”

Grace, Robert C., Deborah A. Donovan, and Leah L. Melnick. 2011. When Renewable Energy Policy Objectives Conflict: A Guide for Policymakers. Silver Spring, MD: National Regulatory Research Institute.

Hamrin, Jan. 2014. REC Definitions and Tracking Mechanisms Used by State RPS Programs. Clean Energy States Alliance.

Heeter, Jenny. Kathy Belyeu, and Ksenia Kuskova-Burns. 2014. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2013 Data). Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Herbert, Christine. 2015. Texas Energy Code Compliance Collaborative: 2014 Energy Code Adoption Report. Austin, TX: The South-central Partnership for Energy Efficiency as a Resource.

Hurlbut, David. 2008. State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Portfolio Standards. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

IBE (Institute for Building Efficiency). 2011. Driving Transformation to Energy Efficient Buildings: Policies and Actions – Building Efficiency Codes and Standards. Milwaukee: Johnson Controls.

IEA (International Energy Agency). 2013. Modernising Building Energy Codes to Secure Our Global Energy Future. Paris: International Energy Agency.

———. “FAQ: Energy Efficiency.”

———. “Kenya: 2nd revision of Feed-in tariffs for Renewable Energy.”

———. “Kenya: Revised Feed-in-tariffs for Renewable Energy.”

IEA-ETSAP (International Energy Agency, Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program) and IRENA (International Renewable Energy Agency). 2015. Biomass for Heat and Power: Technology Brief. Paris: International Energy Agency.

IEA/IRENA (International Energy Agency and International Renewable Energy Agency). “IEA/IRENA Joint Policies and Measures Database.”

IMT (Institute for Market Transformation). 2015. “IMT and ICC Present the 2015 Standard Bearers Awards.”

Iowa Wind Energy Association. 2015. Iowa Wind Energy Fact Sheet.

IPEEC (International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation). 2015. Delivering Energy Savings in Buildings. Paris: OECD/IPEEC.

ITAMS (International Trade Administration Manufacturing and Services), Office of Energy and Environmental Technologies. 2013. Chile’s Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Market: Opportunities for U.S. Exporters. International Trade Administration.

Johansson, Bengt. 2000. Economic Instruments in Practice 1: Carbon Tax in Sweden. Paris: The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Klein, Arne, Erik Merkel, Benjamin Pfluger, Anne Held, Mario Ragwitz, Gustav Resch, and Sebastian Busch. 2010. Evaluation of Different Feed-in-tariff Design Options. 3rd edition. Berlin: German Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety.

Lane, Jim. 2016. “Biofuels Mandates Around the World: 2016.” Biofuels Digest, January 3.

Lantz, Eric, and Elizabeth Doris. 2009. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis: State Tax Incentives. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A2-46567.

Leal, Manoel Regis L.V., Louise Jean Claude Autrey, Bundit Fungtammasan, Douglas L. Karlen, Isaias de Carvalho Macedo, Graham von Maltitz, David J. Muth Jr., Jon Samseth, Zilmar Jose de Souza, Luuk van der Wielen, and Heather Youngs. 2015. “Case Studies.” In Bioenergy and Sustainability: Bridging the Gaps, edited by Glaucio M. Souza, Reynaldo L. Victoria, Carolos A. Joly, and Luciano M. Verdade, 490–527. Paris: Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment.

Leon, Warren. 2012. Designing the Right RPS: A Guide to Selecting Goals and Program Options for a Renewable Portfolio Standard. Montpelier, VT: Clean Energy States Alliance.

Levine, Mark, Stephane de la Rue de Can, Nina Zheng, Christopher Williams, Jennifer Amann, Dan Staniaszek. 2012. Building Energy Efficiency: Best Practice Policies and Policy Packages. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, prepared for Global Buildings Performance Network.

Lofthouse, Jordan, Randy T. Simmons, and Ryan M. Yonk. 2015. Reliability of Renewable Energy: Biomass. Logan: Utah State University.

Macedo, Isaias de Carvalho, Andre M. Nassar, Annette L. Cowie, Joaquim E. Seabra, Luisa Marelli, Martina Otto, Michael Q. Wang, and Wallace E. Tyner. 2015. “Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Bioenergy.” In Bioenergy and Sustainability: Bridging the Gaps, edited by Glaucio M. Souza, Reynaldo L. Victoria, Carolos A. Joly, and Luciano M. Verdade, 582–616. Paris: Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment.

MA-DOER (Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources). 2011. Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards (APS): APS Guideline on the Eligibility and Metering of Combined Heat & Power Projects. Boston, MA: Department of Energy Resources, Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

Mendelsohn, Michael, and Claire Kreycik. 2012. Federal and State Structures to Support Financing Utility-Scale Solar Projects and the Business Models Designed to Utilize Them. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Miller, M., L. Bird, J. Cochran, M. Milligan, M. Bazilian, E. Denny, J. Dillon, J. Bialek, M. O’Malley, and K. Neuhoff. 2013. RES-E-NEXT: Next Generation of RES-E Policy Instruments.

Miller, Mackay, and Sadie Cox. 2014. Overview of Variable Renewable Energy Regulatory Issues: A Clean Energy Regulators Initiative Report. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/TP-6A20-61350.

Mosey, Gail, and Claire Kreycik. 2008. State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Fuel Standards. NREL/TP-670-43513.Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Nelson, David, and Brendan Pierpont. 2013. The Challenge of Institutional Investment in Renewable Energy. San Francisco: Climate Policy Initiative.

Nordic Council of Ministers. n.d. Sweden: GDP, Energy, Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers.

Pacini, Henrique, and Bothwell Batidzirai. 2001. “The Development of Biofuels Capacities: Strengthening the Position of African Countries through Increased Energy Security.” In Bioenergy for Sustainable Development and International Competitiveness, edited by Francis X. Johnson and Vikram Seebaluck. London: Routledge.

Pacini, Henrique, Alessandro Sanches-Pereira, Maria Durleva, Malick Kane, and Arpit Bhutani. 2014. The State of the Biofuels Market: Regulatory, Trade and Development Perspectives. New York: United Nations.

Parnell, John. 2014. "US Utility-scale Solar to ‘Collapse’ during 2017, Says GTM Research." PV Tech.

Paulsworth, Ashley. 2013. “Increasing Sustainable Biomass through Production Tax Credits.” The Journal of Science Policy and Governance 1(3):1–8.

Petterson, Maria, and Patrik Söderholm. 2011. Reforming Wind Power Planning and Policy: Experiences from the Nordic Countries. CESifo DICE Report.

Philibert, Cédric. 2011. Solar Energy Perspectives. Paris: International Energy Agency.

Preechajarn, Sakchai, and Ponnarong Prasertsri. 2010. Thailand Biofuels Annual 2010. GAIN Report Number TH0098. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service.

Public Utility Commission of Texas. 2014. CREZ Progress Report No. 14: Jan Update. Prepared by RS&H.

RED Electrica de Espana. 2014. The Spanish Electricity System Preliminary Report.

REN 21 (Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st). 2015. Renewables 2014: Global Status Report. Paris: REN 21.

———. 2015. Renewables 2015: Global Status Report. Paris: REN21.

Republic of Mauritius. 18 June 2015. “Sustainable Development Composting, Rainwater Harvesting and Solar Water Heater Schemes 2015-2016 to be Launched Soon.” News release, June 18.

RFA (Renewable Fuels Association). 2015. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) Flexibility Provisions. Washington, D.C.: Renewable Fuels Association.

Rickerson, Wilson H., Janet L. Sawin, and Robert C. Grace. 2007. “If the Shoe FITs: Using Feed-in Tariffs to Meet U.S. Renewable Electricity Targets,” The Electricity Journal 20 (2007): 73–86. doi:10.1016/j.tej.2007.03.007.

Rosenberg, M., J. Zhang, R. Hart, and R. Athalye. 2015. Roadmap for the Future of Commercial Energy Codes. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

SEIA (Solar Energy Industries Association). "Depreciation of Solar Energy Property in MACRS.”

Shukla, Shruti, and Steve Sawyer. 2012. 30 Years of Policies for Wind Energy: Lessons from 12 Wind Energy Markets. Paris: International Renewable Energy Agency.

Sorda, Giovanni, Martin Banse, and Claudia Kemfert. 2010. “An Overview of Biofuel Policies Across the World.” Energy Policy 38(11):6977–6988.

Souza, Glaucia Mendes, Reynaldo L. Victoria, Luciano M. Verdade, Carlos A. Joly, Paulo Eduardo Artaxo Netto, Heitor Cantarella, Helena L. Chum, Luis Augusto Barbosa Cortez, Rocio Diaz-Chavez, Erick Fernandes, Geoffrey B. Fincher, José Goldemberg, Luiz Augusto Horta Nogueira, Brian J. Huntley, Francis X. Johnson, Stephen Kaffka, Angela Karp, Manoel Regis L. V. Leal, Stephen P. Long, Lee R. Lynd, Isaias de Carvalho Macedo, Rubens Maciel Filho, André M. Nassar, Francisco E. B. Nigro, Patricia Osseweijer, Tom L. Richard, Jack N. Saddler, Jon Samseth, Vikram Seebaluck, Chris R. Somerville, Luuk van der Wielen, Marie-Anne Van Sluys, Jeremy Woods, and Heather Youngs. 2015a. “Technical Summary.” In Bioenergy and Sustainability: Bridging the Gaps, edited by Glaucio M. Souza, Reynaldo L. Victoria, Carolos A. Joly, and Luciano M. Verdade, 8–26. Paris: Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment.

Souza, Glaucia Mendes, Reynaldo L. Victoria, Luciano M. Verdade, Carlos A. Joly, Paulo Eduardo Artaxo Netto, Heitor Cantarella, Helena L. Chum, Rocio Diaz-Chavez, Erick Fernandes, Geoff Fincher, José Goldemberg, Luiz Augusto Horta Nogueira, Brian J. Huntley, Francis X. Johnson, Angela Karp, Manoel Regis L.V. Leal, Lee R. Lynd, Isaias de Carvalho Macedo, Rubens Maciel Filho, Mariana P. Massafera, André M. Nassar, Francisco E.B. Nigro, Patricia Osseweijer, Tom L. Richard, Jack N. Saddler, Jon Samseth, Vikram Seebaluck, Chris R. Somerville, Luuk van der Wielen, Marie-Anne Van Sluys, Jeremy Woods, and Heather Youngs. 2015b. “Bioenergy Numbers.” In Bioenergy and Sustainability: Bridging the Gaps, edited by Glaucio M. Souza, Reynaldo L. Victoria, Carolos A. Joly, and Luciano M. Verdade, 28–57. Paris: Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment.

Stadelmann, Martin, Gianleo Frisari, and Anja Rosenberg. 2014. The Role of Public Finance in CSP: Lessons Learned. Climate Policy Initiative.

State of Green. 2016. District Energy: Energy Efficiency for Urban Areas. Copenhagen: State of Green.

Sumner, Jenny, Lori Bird, and Hillary Smith. 2009. Carbon Taxes: A Review of Experience and Policy Design Considerations. NREL/TP-6A2-47312. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development). 2014. The Global Biofuels Market: Energy Security, Trade and Development. UNCTAD Policy Brief No. 30, October. New York: United Nations.

UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). 2015. Updated Compilation of Information on Mitigation Benefits of Actions, Initiatives and Options to Enhance Mitigation Ambition. Bonn, Germany: United Nations.

USGBC (U.S. Green Building Council). “LEED.”

VanGeem, Martha, and Ryan M. Colker. 24 March 2014. “Energy Codes and Standards.” Whole Building Design Guide.

Walters, Terri, Neha Rai, Sean Esterly, Sadie Cox, and Tim Reber. 2015. Policies to Spur Energy Access. Golden, CO: Clean Energy Solutions Center. NREL/TP-7A40-64460.

Wiser, Ryan H., and Mark Bolinger. 2014. 2013 Wind Technologies Market Report. Washington: U.S. Department of Energy.

Wiser, Ryan, Galen Barbose, and Edward Holt. 2010. Supporting Solar Power in Renewables Portfolio Standards: Experience from the United States. Berkeley, CA.

World Bank. 2013. Financing Renewable Energy Options for Developing Financing Instruments Using Public Funds. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

———. 2014. State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2014. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

———. n.d. Putting a Price on Carbon with a Tax. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

WRI (World Resources Institutue), WWF (World Wide Fund). 2013. Meeting Renewable Energy Targets: Global Lessons from the Road to Implementation. Gland, Switzerland: WWF International.

Youngs, Heather, Luiz Augusto Horta Nogueira, Chris R. Somerville, and Jose Goldemberg. 2015. “Perspectives on Bioenergy.” In Bioenergy and Sustainability: Bridging the Gaps, edited by Glaucio M. Souza, Reynaldo L. Victoria, Carolos A. Joly, and Luciano M. Verdade, 230–56. Paris: Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment.

Zarrilli, Simonetta. 2008. Making Certification Work for Sustainable Development: The Case of Biofuels. New York: United Nations.