Fish are and have been a major food staple providing essential nutrition for many cultures throughout the world. Sporadic energy prices, hydropower dams, industrialization and overfishing threaten many developing economies that rely on fishing. “Of the 30 countries whose citizens are most dependent on fish as a source of protein, over 80 per cent are less developed countries” with the bulk of the world’s catch harvested using vessels, from super trawlers to gasoline and diesel-fueled engines, all propelled by fossil fuels (Fisheries and Energy Use, Encyclopedia of Energy, 2004). This section focuses on fishing practices that improve energy and water efficiency and reduce impacts on the fish supply chain.