Sustainable Development and the Water–Energy–Food Nexus: A Perspective on Livelihoods


Environmental Science and Policy
Eloise M. Biggs
Eleanor Bruce
Bryan Boruff
John M.A. Duncan
Julia Horsley
Natasha Pauli
Kellie McNeill
Andreas Neef
Floris Van Ogtrop
Jayne Curnow
Billy Haworth
Stephanie Duce
Yukihiro Imanari
1 December 2015

This paper presents a critical review of nexus approaches and identify potential linkages with sustainable livelihoods theory and practice, to deepen the understanding of the interrelated dynamics between human populations and the natural environment. Building upon this review, the concept of ‘environmental livelihood security’ was explored, which encompasses a balance between natural resource supply and human demand on the environment to promote sustainability – and develop an integrated nexus-livelihoods framework for examining the environmental livelihood security of a system.