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Advancing Gender in the Environment: Making The Case For Women in the Energy Sector

This brief reviews the role of women in the formal energy sector. It presents evidence that women’s equal participation in the sector will result in measurable benefits, including increased returns on investments and stronger development outcomes. Additionally, the brief identifies ways in which women are driving the growth of the renewable energy sector, and it presents a global overview of best practices and solutions that remove barriers to participation.

Renewable Energy Auction Markets: Analyzing 2016

This study analyses the results of renewable energy auctions globally. It provides an overview of the most recent renewable energy auctions, and of analyses trends in auction prices and designs. The analysis is meant to provide policymakers with an understanding of the dynamics of auctions to support their design in particular and to make informed choices of policy instruments in general.

Energypedia: Mini-grid Portal

This website provides an overview of the information available on energypedia that is related to mini-grids. Categories covered include planning, management and operation of mini-grids; financing, policy and regulatory frameworks for mini-grids; business model case studies; monitoring and evaluation of mini-grids; country case studies on mini-grids; web-based mini-grid tools; and mini-grid contacts).

100% Renewable Energy for Sustainable Development

This paper describes the relationship between renewable energy and sustainable development. In particular, it demonstrates how supporting the transition to 100% renewable energy is both a necessary condition and a driver for sustainable development that leaves no one behind. It examines how a transition to 100% renewable energy can contribute to the achievement of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals and can be directly relevant to many of the 169 targets.

Scale and Sustainability: Toward a Public-Private Paradigm in Powering India

This publication assesses the decentralized renewable energy market in India—looking at the supply, demand and framework conditions for the sector—and articulates potential approaches to leveling the playing field. These approaches are meant primarily for the consideration of actors in the international development cooperation and financing space, such as development agencies, development financing institutions, multilateral development banks, philanthropic foundations and impact investors as well as relevant Indian government stakeholders at central and state levels.

Reaching Scale in Access to Energy: Lessons from Practitioners

In this report, successful entrepreneurs in energy share insights into what they have learned and what has held them back. A list of best practices and lessons learned is provided that focuses on approaches with the highest volumes or innovation dynamics, namely solar lanterns, improved cooking stoves, solar home systems, clean energy microgrids and solar irrigation pumps. The report focuses on market-based approaches. It is intended for entrepreneurs as well as large companies, investors, donors, and governments.

Turning on the Lights: Transcending Energy Poverty Through the Power of Women Entrepreneurs

In 2016, a research team from Santa Clara University’s Miller Center for Social Entrepreneurship undertook survey research with Solar Sister to examine the effects of solar lantern use on users’ health, education, time allocation, household savings, income generation and increased agency. The team conducted a 53-question survey in more than 20 villages across five regions in Tanzania, with research assistants providing English-Swahili translation. The results of the study are presented in this report.

Poor People's Energy Outlook 2017: Financing National Energy Access: A Bottom-up Approach

The 2017 edition of the Poor People's Energy Outlook considers how to best finance national integrated energy access plans for Bangladesh, Kenya and Togo based on the 2016 outlook’s analysis. The report looks at the mix of technologies and funding required to achieve national and global energy access goals, and the roles of civil society and the private and public sectors in making this a reality.

State of Electricity Access Report: 2017

This report begins examines the role of electricity access in the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), and it provides a snapshot of the status of electricity access based on the recent Global Tracking Framework Data. It also explores how countries can create a conducive environment for a transformative electricity access roll out, how clean energy fits into the picture and how emerging and innovative service delivery models can accelerate progress on meeting SDG goals.

Markets for Low Carbon, Low Cost Electricity Systems: Working Paper

This paper is part of Climate Policy Initiative (CPI) Energy Finance’s work-stream on market design and incorporates work already published as part of the Energy Transitions Commission, and new concepts presented as part of the Eurelectric Market Design 2050 program, among others. The paper highlights at least four major problems of incremental refinement to existing market models, and the authors proposes a two-market solution.

Developing Brazil’s Market for Distributed Solar Generation

In this working paper, researchers analyze 5,563 municipalities in Brazil and show that demand side factors drive consumer uptake of PV distributed energy generation. This effect is so relevant that municipalities with lower annual solar radiation have, on average, more consumer units of distributed solar photovoltaic generation than municipalities with higher levels of radiation. The analysis is one of the first to examine the decentralized solar generation market at a municipality level in Brazil, yielding unique insights to this emerging industry.

Climate Finance Insight Videos: Meeting the goals of the Paris Agreement

On May 8–9 2017, at the sixth meeting of the San Giorgio Group (SGG) in Venice, Climate Policy Initiative brought together financial institutions actively engaged in low-emissions finance for frank discussions on the most pressing policy and investment issues related to scaling up climate action. A series of interviews were filmed during the 2017 SGG with representatives of governments and financial institutions to discuss financing needs, opportunities, and trends as countries work to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement. This web page contains the video interviews.

Accelerating Mini-Grid Deployment In Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Tanzania

This report is the first major survey of Tanzania’s mini-grid sector. It sheds light on lessons learned from Tanzania that can help accelerate mini-grid deployment across countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The analysis points to three key actions for governments and practitioners across the continent: (1) creating an adaptive and responsive policy approach, (2) focusing on the entire mini-grid ecosystem and (3) investing in both qualitative and quantitative assessments of the development impacts of mini-grids.

Energizing Finance: Scaling and Refining Finance in Countries with Large Energy Access Gaps

This study attempts to systematically analyze finance that is being committed to energy access in developing countries, predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, and what is known about the disbursement of development finance for energy access or the challenges facing energy access enterprises. This research tracks and analyzes financing flows for electricity and clean cooking access in 20 countries.

Situation Analysis of Gender and Sustainable Energy in the East African Community 2018

This publication provides a baseline understanding of gender equality and women’s empowerment in East African Communities (EAC). It focuses on the current status of women in the energy sector and decision-making positions in East Africa, and it presents the main barriers to and achievements of gender equality and women’s empowerment in EAC.

Synergies Between Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

This report starts with an overview of the latest insights from IRENA, with a focus on the role of renewable energy and energy efficiency in the decarbonization of the global energy system by 2050. It pays particular attention to the five largest energy-using countries of the G20, namely the People’s Republic of China, Germany, India, Japan and the United States, but it narrows its focus to 2030.

Renewable Energy for Industry: From Green Energy to Green Materials and Fuels

This report considers various current and forthcoming options to increase the uptake of renewables as one possible way to reduce industry sector energy and process carbon dioxide emissions. The main finding of the report is that the recent rapid cost reductions in solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind power may enable new options for greening the industry, either directly from electricity or through the production of hydrogen-rich chemicals and fuels. Simultaneously, electrification offers new flexibility options to better integrate large shares of variable renewables into power grids.

Renewables in Mozambique: National Status Report

This report aims to contribute to the sustainable development of a thriving renewable energy sector by providing an update on the various initiatives that the Government of Mozambique and its international partners have taken. It also gives an overview of available resources, pilot projects, best practices and concrete investment opportunities.

2017 Progress Report: Driving Demand. Delivering Impact.

Each year the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves invites organizations working in the sector to share their annual sales and distribution numbers. These self-reported data are compiled and used to model sector progress towards increasing access to and adoption of cleaner, more efficient cookstoves and fuels. This report presents data for 2017.

Powering Primary Healthcare through Solar in India: Lessons from Chhattisgarh

This paper focuses on a study carried out to evaluate the impact of solar PV installations on improving access to electricity at primary health centers (PHCs) and thereby improving health service delivery in Chhattisgarh, India. The evaluation was intended to: (1) understand the synergy between electricity access and delivery of healthcare services, (2) evaluate the impact of installed solar PV systems on addressing gaps in access to electricity and (3i) assess the gaps in the transition to higher standards of primary healthcare.

Improving the Financing Environment for Renewable Energy Projects through Local Administrative Capacity Building

A workshop titled, “Improving the Financing Environment for Renewable Energy Projects through Local Administrative Capacity Building” was held 4 October 2017 in Banja Luka. It sought to understand the complex energy sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and to discuss key areas on the education of public officials, spatial planning, concession issues, involvement of NGOs and citizens. The workshop focused on four core topics: education of public officials, spatial planning, concession issues and involvement of NGOs and citizens.

Perspectives for the Energy Transition: Investment Needs for a Low-Carbon Energy System

This study aims to analyse the scale and scope of investments in low-carbon technologies in power generation, transport, buildings and industry (including heating and cooling) that are needed to facilitate an energy transition that would be consistent with limiting the rise in global temperature to well below two degrees Celsius (2°C), as set out in the Paris Agreement, and in a cost-effective manner. The findings of this report will inform G20 work on energy and climate in the context of the 2017 German G20 presidency.

Renewable Energy Prospects for the European Union

This report identifies cost-effective renewable energy options for all EU Member States—spanning a wide range of sectors and technologies—to accelerate the deployment of renewables towards 2030. It also identifies areas where further action could be taken to unleash the full renewable energy potential identified.

REthinking Energy 2017 Accelerating the Global Energy Transformation

This edition, the third edition of REthinking Energy presents evidence and a narrative of how renewable energy is being produced and used. A further boost has come from commitments by the private sector, including companies such as Google, Apple, and Facebook, which are committing to procure renewable energy for their operations, while a vibrant small and medium-size enterprise sector in emerging economies is pioneering new and successful models bringing sustainable energy to the energy poor.

Reaching the Last Mile: Women's Social and Sustainable Energy Entrepreneurship

In 2013, a team of MIT faculty and students traveled conduct a product evaluation of Solar Sister solar lanterns in western Uganda. They conducted hundreds of surveys with consumers, suppliers, manufacturers and nonprofits to evaluate 11 locally available models. The team assessed solar lanterns from three integrated perspectives: suitability (does a product perform its intended purpose), scalability (can the supply chain effectively reach consumers) and sustainability (is the product used correctly, consistently and continuously over time).

Freezing in the Tropics: Asean’s Air-con Conundrum

Electricity demand is expected to more than double to 2,000 terawatt-hours up to 2040 for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean). Most of this growth comes from residential and commercial buildings, mostly for cooling, such that by 2040, air-conditioning could account for up to 40% of Asean’s overall electricity demand. The author argues that a crisis can be avoided if the region adopts more efficient technologies and supports a culture change in cooling consumption.

The True Cost of Using Traditional Fuels in a Humanitarian Setting. Case Study of the Nyarugusu Refugee Camp, Kigoma Region, Tanzania

This publication aims to bring an economic rationale to the core of the humanitarian decision-making process by examining the specific issue of cooking in the Nyarugusu refugee camp. The current combination of wood-fuel and inefficient cook-stoves carries many hidden costs resulting in numerous negative externalities. using a monetary metric, the authors have identified and valued these costs, which are outlined in the report.

Renewable Energy Market Analysis: Southeast Asia

This executive summary discusses the critical considerations for effective policymaking to accelerate the energy transition in Southeast Asia. It analyses trends in energy supply and consumption at the regional and national levels, drivers for renewable energy, resource potential, costs, benefits, policies and investment. The report considers utility-scale, roof-top as well as off-grid applications for expanding energy access.

Executive Summary: Perspectives for the Energy Transition-Investment Needs for a Low-Carbon Energy System

The objective of this study is to analyse the scale and scope of investments in low-carbon technologies in power generation, transport, buildings and industry (including heating and cooling) that are needed to facilitate an energy transition in a cost-effective manner while also working towards other policy goals. The findings of this report are intended to inform G20 work on energy and climate in the context of the 2017 German G20 presidency.

Mini-grid Policy Toolkit

This manual is focused on providing local electricity supply that can be powered through a variety of sources, including available fuels and renewables such as solar panels. The toolkit is designed to facilitate rollout of mini-grids that meet the requirements of remote communities.

Engendering Utilities: Improving Gender Diversity in Power Sector Utilities

The research summarized in this report is expected to help development professionals better understand how electricity utilities can increase the labor market participation of women in the energy sector. The data in the report facilitate the creation of company-specific interventions to improve women’s career prospects while improving the quality and cost of electricity services. And, the development hypothesis grounding this policy work suggests that mitigating gender disparities can increase operational efficiencies that will ultimately bring greater value to utility companies.

Opening Doors: Mapping The Landscape for Sustainable Energy, Gender Diversity and Social Inclusion

This report aims to systematically catalog the wide-ranging universe of stakeholders and initiatives that are addressing energy poverty and accelerating the global clean energy transition by empowering women and promoting gender equality and social inclusion. The research behind the report maps the landscape of what is happening around the world on gender and social inclusion, on who is doing it and how funds are flowing.

The Productivity of International Financial Institutions’ Energy Interventions

The report presents an approach to help international financial institutions deliver on their mandates to increase economic productivity and meet environmental and social objectives while lowering energy use from fossil fuel sources. The approach integrates climate and development goals into an expanded concept of energy productivity to enable the institutions to more clearly assess the impacts of their actual and potential energy interventions.

Decarbonization of Indian Railways

The authors of this report identify potential pathways to decarbonization of Indian Railways by 2030 and examine their cost-effectiveness and feasibility. For non-traction segment (energy use for the supporting infrastructure), they found that the decarbonization pathway of captive generation at an accelerated rate of decarbonization is even more cost-effective than in the traction segment.

Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Stakeholders Open Consultation

The Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari Land and Water Division (L&W Div.) carries out education and training, research activities and cooperation actions and projects through capacity building, in line with CIHEAM’s mission and strategy. Its main objective is to foster an integrated approach in Land and Water Resources Management within the Water-Energy-Food Nexus and Food Security. Its activities cover Technical, Institutional, Socio-Economic and Governance aspects.

The Status of the Water-Food-Energy Nexus in Asia and the Pacific

This report traces the debate, analysis and action on the water, food and energy security nexus. Considering the complex interactions of these three resources will require new instructional capacity in both industrialized and developing countries. For the nexus approach to achieve the twin goals of human well-being and green growth, sustainability must move center-stage, with attention given to ecosystem services.

West-Wide Analysis of the Energy-Water Nexus.

The western U.S. is home to many of the nation’s fastest growing cities. Accompanying this growth is the increasing demand for water for municipal/industrial supply as well as for expanding thermoelectric power production. This competition over new water demands is playing out in some of our nation’s driest watersheds. To better understand the energy-water nexus in the West a coordinated analysis is being undertaken by federal and state agencies, the power industry, NGOs and other interested stakeholders.

Water–Energy–Food (WEF) Nexus Tool 2.0: Guiding Integrative Resource Planning and Decision-making

The paper introduces a framework and set of methodologies that define the linkages between the interconnected resources of water, energy and food, and enable explicit corresponding quantifications. The paper presents a new water–energy–food (WEF) Nexus modelling tool (WEF Nexus Tool 2.0) based on that framework which offers a common platform for scientists and policy-makers to evaluate scenarios and identify sustainable national resource allocation strategies. The tool is applied to a case study focusing on Qatar, a hyper-arid Gulf country.

Water-Food-Energy Nexus with Changing Agricultural Scenarios in India During Recent Decades

Meeting the growing water and food demands in a densely populated country like India is a major challenge. It requires an extensive investigation into the changing patterns of the checks and balances behind the maintenance of food security at the expense of depleting groundwater, along with high energy consumption. This report presents a comprehensive set of analyses which assess the present status of the water-food-energy nexus in India, along with its changing pattern, in the last few decades.

Water-Energy-Food Nexus within the Framework of International Water Law

International water law, which regulates the uses of international watercourses that are situated partly in different States, is a highly topical sector of law. In 2014, two conventions covering the subject matter entered into force globally. At the same time, a water-food-energy nexus has become part and parcel of the development canon that emphasizes the importance of the complex relationship between water, energy and food.

Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Transboundary River Basin: The Case of Tonle Sap Lake, Mekong River Basin

This article shares the experiences with using a nexus approach in Cambodia's Tonle Sap Lake area. It concludes that water, energy and food security are very closely linked, both in the Tonle Sap and in the transboundary Mekong River Basin generally. The current drive for large-scale hydropower threatens water and food security at both local and national scales. Hence, the nexus provides a relevant starting point for promoting sustainable development in the Mekong.

Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Large Asian River Basins

The water-energy-food nexus (“nexus”) is promoted as an approach to look at the linkages between water, energy and food. The articles of Water’s Special Issue “Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Large Asian River Basins” look at the applicability of the nexus approach in different regions and rivers basins in Asia. The articles provide practical examples of the various roles and importance of water-energy-food linkages, but also discuss the theoretical aspects related to the nexus.

Water-Food-Nutrition-Health Nexus: Linking Water to Improving Food, Nutrition and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa

Whereas sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA) water scarcity, food, nutrition and health challenges are well-documented, efforts to address them have often been disconnected. Given that the region continues to be affected by poverty and food and nutrition insecurity at national and household levels, there is a need for a paradigm shift in order to effectively deliver on the twin challenges of food and nutrition security under conditions of water scarcity. There is a need to link water use in agriculture to achieve food and nutrition security outcomes for improved human health and well-being.

Water-Food-Energy Nexus

This article provides information on solutions for the water-food-energy nexus, reflects on nexus interventions at the policy level (including a case study), taking a river basin approach to managing water across boundaries, and introducing nexus thinking in achieving sustainable development goals.

Water-Energy Nexus in Saudi Arabia

This work provides a comprehensive analysis of the interdependence of water and energy in Saudi Arabia, including collecting data to map out energy and water consumption across the Kingdom.

Water-Agriculture-Livelihood Security in India

This website describes how the Columbia Water Center is working to promote climate change adaptation and water sustainability while improving farmer livelihood and food security in three key regions of India.

Water, Energy, and Food Security in the Asia Pacific Region

Security measures of three resources; water, energy and food are analyzed for thirty two countries in the Asia Pacific region which are faced to Pacific Ocean, in terms of amounts of the resource, self-production, and diversity of sources of each resource. Diversity for all the three resources is also analyzed using surface water and groundwater for water sources; hydro power, geothermal power, solar, and biomass for energy; and cereals, vegetable, fruit, meat, and fish for food.

Water Savings of Crop Redistribution in the United States

Recent research on the food-water nexus has highlighted how some major agricultural regions of the world lack the water resources required to sustain current growth trends in crop production. To meet the increasing need for agricultural commodities with limited water resources, the water use efficiency of the agricultural sector must be improved. In this regard, recent work indicates that the often overlooked strategy of changing the crop distribution within presently cultivated areas offers promise.

Water Saving Potentials and Possible Trade-offs for Future Food and Energy Supply

Rising global population numbers and economic development could likely cause an increase in natural resource demand over the coming decades, while at the same time climate change might lead to lower overall water availability. The result could be an increased competition for water resources mainly in water-stressed regions of the world in the future.

Water Consumption Related to Different Diets in Mediterranean Cities

Providing the sustainable development goals (SDGs) water, food and energy security to cities relies strongly on resource use outside city borders. Many modern cities have recently invested in a sustainable urban water system, and score high in international city rankings regarding water management and direct urban water use. However, these rankings generally neglect external resource use for cities. This report quantifies the water resources related to food consumption in thirteen cities located in Mediterranean countries, by means of the water footprint (WF) concept.

Water and Energy Footprint of Irrigated Agriculture in the Mediterranean Region

Irrigated agriculture constitutes the largest consumer of freshwater in the Mediterranean region and provides a major source of income and employment for rural livelihoods. However, increasing droughts and water scarcity have highlighted concerns regarding the environmental sustainability of agriculture in the region. An integrated assessment combining a gridded water balance model with a geodatabase and GIS has been developed and used to assess the water demand and energy footprint of irrigated production in the region.

Water Resources Vulnerability Assessment of MENA Countries Considering Energy and Virtual Water Interactions

Scarce water resources of MENA countries are under multiple stressors: population growth, growing economies, land use changes, changing lifestyles or climatic variability. The vulnerability of such resources is often analyzed using simple, sector-specific indicators. This study develops a holistic country-based vulnerability assessment of water resources using an integrated index. This Country Vulnerability Index of Water Resources (CVIW) considers cross-sectoral linkages as a way to mitigate vulnerability.

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Urban Agriculture: Exploring the Food, Energy, Water, and Health Nexus in Hyderabad, India

Nutrients and water found in domestic treated wastewater are valuable and can be reutilized in urban agriculture as a potential strategy to provide communities with access to fresh produce. In this paper, this proposition is examined by conducting a field study in the rapidly developing city of Hyderabad, India. Urban agriculture trade-offs in water use, energy use and GHG emissions, nutrient uptake, and crop pathogen quality are evaluated, and irrigation waters of varying qualities (treated wastewater, versus untreated water and groundwater) are compared.

Vulnerabilities and Opportunities at the Nexus of Electricity, Water and Climate

The articles in this special issue examine the critical nexus of electricity, water, and climate, emphasizing connections among resources; the prospect of increasing vulnerabilities of water resources and electricity generation in a changing climate; and the opportunities for research to inform integrated energy and water policy and management measures aimed at reducing vulnerability and increasing resilience. The articles characterize several major themes emerging from this research and highlight some of the uptake of this work in both scientific and public spheres.

Variations in the Use of Resources for food: Land, Nitrogen Fertilizer and Food Nexus

Future dietary changes will increase the global demand for agricultural resources per person. Food production requires several resources which are interrelated: land, water, nutrients and energy. Other studies have calculated the per capita requirements of only one resource (nitrogen or land). This paper combines several parameters (diets, production systems and nitrogen-land trade-off) in one analysis in order to provide a more integrated assessment of the impacts of the use of agricultural resources for food.

Urban Food Consumption and Associated Water Resources: The Example of Dutch Cities

This paper analyzes the dependency of urban inhabitants on the resource water for food consumption, by means of Dutch cities. This paper found that in extremely urbanized municipalities like Amsterdam and Rotterdam, people eat more meat and cereals and less potatoes than in other Dutch municipalities. Their current water footprint (WF) related to food consumption is therefore higher (3245l/cap/day) than in strongly urbanized cities (3126l/cap/day).

Food Security

The USDA Office of the Chief Economist Climate Change Program Office webpage provides food security and related information.

Trees for life: The Ecosystem Service Contribution of Trees to Food Production and Livelihoods in the Tropics

Despite expanding interest in ecosystem service research over the past three decades, in-depth understanding of the contribution of forests and trees to food production and livelihoods remains limited. This review synthesizes the current evidence base examining the contribution of forest and trees to agricultural production and livelihoods in the tropics, where production often occurs within complex land use mosaics that are increasingly subjected to concomitant climatic and anthropogenic pressures.

Transferable Principles for Managing the Nexus: Lessons from Historical Global Water Modelling of Central Asia

The complex relationships within the water-energy-food security nexus tend to be place-specific, increasing the importance of identifying transferable principles to facilitate implementation of a nexus approach. This paper aims to contribute transferable principles by using global model data and concepts to illustrate and analyze the water history of Central Asia. This approach builds on extensive literature about Central Asia and global change as well as recent advances in global water modeling.

The Water-Land-Food Nexus of First-Generation Biofuels

This report provides a global assessment of biofuel crop production, reconstruct global patterns of biofuel crop/oil trade and determines the associated displacement of water and land use. INcluded is an evaluation food-energy tradeoff and the impact an increased reliance on biofuel would have on the number of people the planet can feed.

The Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus through the Lenses of the Value Chain and the Institutional Analysis and Development Frameworks

A number of frameworks have been used to study the water-food-energy nexus without consideration of the role of institutions in mediating environmental outcomes. This report aims to start filling the gap by combining insights from the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework and value chain analysis. Specifically food, energy and water value chains as networks of action situations (NAS) where actors' decisions depend not only on the institutional structure of a particular situation but also on the decisions made in related situations.

The Water Energy Nexus, an ISO50001 Water Case Study and the need for a Water Value System

The scarcity and cost of water worldwide, along with water management practices within Europe, are highlighted in this paper. The heavy dependence of energy generation on water and the similar dependence of water treatment and distribution on energy, collectively termed the water–energy nexus, is detailed. A summary of the recently launched ISO14046 Water Footprint Standard along with other benchmarking measures are outlined. In addition, a case history of managing water using the Energy Management Standard ISO50001 is discussed in detail.

The Nonlinear Relation between Biofuels, Food Prices

This paper analyzes the relationship between the production of agricultural foods (cereals and vegetable oils) and the production of energy by using food. The observed increase in economic activities that use energy has had an impulse in the energy industry with higher prices. These prices make profitable the biofuel production, and this encourage the use of cereals for biofuel production, affecting the whole food chain.

The Nexus of Agricultural Water Use and Economic Development Level

This paper studied the relationship of water use for agricultural purposes in 154 countries and their economic development. In this study, the economic development in a country, as indicated by per capita GNI, was separated into four income groups, based on the World Bank criteria: (1) high income; (2) upper-middle income; (3) lower-middle income; and (4) low income. The results of the study revealed that water use for agricultural purposes usually takes the highest proportion of water consumption in low, lower-middle, and upper-middle income countries.

The Effect of Energy Constraints on Water Allocation Decisions: The Elaboration and Application of a System-Wide Economic-Water-Energy Model (SEWEM)

This is an illustrated for the case of the Aral Sea Basin (ASB) in Central Asia, where surface and groundwater supplies heavily depend on pumping and thus on energy availability. The findings underlined the over estimations of optimal water uses by a hydro-economic model that neglects energy constraints. Moreover, geographical conditions have affected the changes in optimal ratios of surface and groundwater uses and water distributions across the river basin when energy restrictions are taken into account.

The Effect of Energy Constraints on Water Allocation Decisions: The Elaboration and Application of a System-Wide Economic-Water-Energy Model (SEWEM)

This is an illustrated for the case of the Aral Sea Basin (ASB) in Central Asia, where surface and groundwater supplies heavily depend on pumping and thus on energy availability. The findings underlined the over estimations of optimal water uses by a hydro-economic model that neglects energy constraints. Moreover, geographical conditions have affected the changes in optimal ratios of surface and groundwater uses and water distributions across the river basin when energy restrictions are taken into account.

The `Seafood Gap' in the Food-Water Nexus Literature—Issues Surrounding Freshwater Use in Seafood Production Chains

This study (1) reviews freshwater use concepts as they relate to seafood production, (2) provides three cases to highlight the particular water use concerns for aquaculture and (3) outlines future directions to integrate seafood into the broader food-water nexus discussion. By revisiting water use concepts through a focus on seafood production systems, we highlight the key water use processes that should be considered for seafood production and offer a fresh perspective on the analysis of freshwater use in food systems more broadly.

The Water–Energy–Food Security Nexus: Challenges and Opportunities for Food Security in South Africa

The interconnectedness of water, energy and food production cycles translates into the interdependence of water, energy and food pricing. This paper interrogates the level of interconnectedness between these systems in South Africa and discusses how energy and water costs influence food prices in the country and affect the country's level of food security. In addtion this paper emphasizes that sustainable solutions to food security necessitate integrative thinking in the process of strategic planning for these resources.

The Role of Soils in Global Water and Food Security

This article explores the role of soil in bridging the food security gap, with a special focus on North Africa. It also makes a call for more research investment in fundamental soils and water research in order to secure and maintain the roles of healthy soil for the to benefit of global economic security.

The Importance of Water Security for Sustainable Development in the Romanian Agri-Food Sector

The links between, water security and food security are shown to be important in Romania. In agreement with the experts and considering the strategic relevance of these aspects, this report aims to stress more on the importance of investment in water infrastructure in the rural areas of Romania, to achieve the water security required for a sustainable agri-food and rural development. Highlighted, in this report are directions of integrated water management in view of a green economy.

The Food-Energy-Water Nexus

This is an overview of the food-energy-water nexus from Dr. Noureddin Driouech (UC Berkeley). Understanding the complex relationship between water, energy and food systems has become critically important to the development of a sustainable and secure future for all nations and regions. There are many synergies and tradeoffs between water, energy use and food production. Recognizing these synergies and balancing these tradeoffs is central to jointly ensuring the availability of water, energy and food.

The 'Nexus' as a Step Back Towards a More Coherent Water Resource Management Paradigm

This paper locates the emergence of the 'water-food-energy nexus' discourse as a step in the progression of the 'development versus environment' debate, which came into focus at the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The dominant water management paradigm after Rio was not the approach of Agenda 21, the Rio Programme of Action (UNCED, 1992) but loosely based on the outcome of the Dublin International Conference on Water and the Environment (ICWE, 1992).

Taking Complexity in Food Systems Seriously: An Interdisciplinary Analysis

This study analyzed the interdisciplinary triangulation of four divergent conceptual frameworks, each relevant to diagnosing food insecurity in developing countries. Notable tensions as well as synergistic interactions between agroecology, agricultural innovation systems, social–ecological systems, and political ecology were discovered. Cross-framework interactions enhance the understanding of how sectoral and macro-economic development strategies impact on livelihoods, availability, and access.

Tackling Trade-offs in the Nexus of Water, Energy and Food

This study explores processes that enable effective policies and practices for managing the links between water, energy, and food. Three case studies are assessed at different scales in the Mekong River basin, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe. There are considerable opportunities for improving outcomes for sustainable development by finding solutions that accommodate multiple objectives in the nexus.

Sustainable Maize Production and Consumption in China: Practices and Politics in Transition

This paper discusses the technological, political and socio-cultural factors central to such systemic changes, with a focus on maize as a core case study. In particular it presents and discusses two contending pathways towards more sustainable maize production and consumption: indigenous innovation and alternative pathway. The two pathways claim different environmental benefits and present different risks and political implications.

Sustainable Development and the Water–Energy–Food Nexus: A Perspective on Livelihoods

This paper presents a critical review of nexus approaches and identify potential linkages with sustainable livelihoods theory and practice, to deepen the understanding of the interrelated dynamics between human populations and the natural environment. Building upon this review, the concept of ‘environmental livelihood security’ was explored, which encompasses a balance between natural resource supply and human demand on the environment to promote sustainability – and develop an integrated nexus-livelihoods framework for examining the environmental livelihood security of a system.

World Bank: Water Website

As the world’s largest multilateral source of financing for water in developing countries, the World Bank is working closely with partners to achieve “A Water-Secure World for All,” by investing in water solutions that enable universal access, promote water security, and build resilient societies.

Food, Energy, Environment, Water Network

Food, energy, environment and water are critical systems to both people and landscapes. The FE2W Network works with decision-makers to improve the understanding of systemic risks and how to manage shocks across these systems.

Sustainable Agricultural Water Management in Pinios River Basin Using Remote Sensing and Hydrologic Modeling

The Pinios river basin is a major agricultural area in Greece, which faces environmental issues with water scarcity and nutrient pollution. Recent Earth Observation satellite data and ground truth information were combined to produce an updated land use map, focusing on irrigated crop areas. A process-based hydrological model (SWAT) was set up using the produced land use map. The model was calibrated and validated using observed streamflows and nutrient concentrations at selected gauging stations. Four irrigation and nutrient management practices related to resource efficiency (i.e.

Supporting Collaboration in Interdisciplinary Research of Water–Energy–Food Nexus by Means of Ontology Engineering

This study focus is on hydrology in the context of water–energy–food nexus. As well as ontology engineering, which is a base technology in Semantic Web Technology, as a method providing common terms, concepts, and semantics. This study discusses new hydrological insights, such as the effectiveness of ontology engineering approach in the process of collaborative research, and propose the way of ontology use contributing to interdisciplinary research through the experimental workshops of research development.

U.S. Administration of International Development (USAID): On The Waterfront

USAID is at the forefront of this water-energy-food security “nexus” approach. The Agency is working with local populations to promote smarter water and energy use, developing cutting-edge fuel-efficient technologies to irrigate crops, and exploring resource-efficient agricultural production methods. This integration is crucial to USAID’s work to usher in a sustainable future.

Simulating County-Level Crop Yields in the Conterminous United States Using the Community Land Model: The Effects of Optimizing Irrigation and Fertilization

Representing agricultural systems explicitly in Earth system models is important for understanding the water-energy-food nexus under climate change.The study applied Version 4.5 of the Community Land Model (CLM) at a 0.125 degree resolution to provide the first county-scale validation of the model in simulating crop yields over the Conterminous United States (CONUS). This study focused on corn and soybean that are both important grain crops and biofuel feedstocks (corn for bioethanol; soybean for biodiesel).

Integrated GREEN Solutions

Integrated GREEN Solutions provides a wide spectrum of environmental services. i.GREENs services can be summarized into three main groups: Training and research, Environmental Consultations, and Green Products and Solutions. The scope of services includes: Renewable energy and energy conservation, water and waste water management (including waste and graywater treatment and water conservation), waste management and recycling and green buildings design and implementation.

Securitizing Sustainability? Questioning the 'Water, Energy and Food-Security Nexus'

The water, energy and food-security nexus approach put forward by the Bonn2011 Conference highlights the need for an integrative approach towards issues of water, energy and food, and puts them under a general framework of security. While acknowledging the need for urgent solutions in terms of sustainability, the nexus approach, at the same time, makes a normative claim to tackle the needs of the poorest parts of the world population.

Water-Energy Nexus: Solutions To Meet A Growing Demand

Water and energy are vital to the prosperity of the United States. This report describes the intimate but easily overlooked connections between the two resources: energy production relies on enormous amounts of water, and developing and delivering water supplies consumes large amounts of energy. As demand for both water and energy is expected to increase with population growth, this report describes the challenges to addressing limited water and energy supplies. Obstacles exist at all scales and demand involvement of stakeholders, experts, and policymakers.

Scale Dependence of Controls on Groundwater Vulnerability in the Water–Energy–Food Nexus, California Coastal Basin Aquifer System

In the Coastal California Basin (CCB) aquifer system, the conflicts in the water-energy-food nexus are apparent because of intensive agricultural practices that have contributed to chronic nitrate− loading to groundwater. Evaluates the scale-dependent relations among source, transport, and attenuation factors that control nonpoint source nitrate− contamination in recently recharged CCB groundwater.

Resource Recovery and Recycling in Sanitation is Key to Health, Water and Food Security

This study argues that the issue of sanitation and the solutions to it extends far beyond its mere access; any envisioned improvement in sanitation technology must strive to rectify the shortcomings in centralized wastewater treatment wherein end-of-pipe technologies have been favored. Illustrates that simultaneous provisioning of ‘access’ and ‘improved sanitation’ through urine diversion and resource recovery can help create multiple-win scenarios in developing countries especially in terms of health, food and water security.

Reconciling Food Security and Bioenergy: Priorities for Action

Climate change will have far-reaching impacts on crop, livestock and fisheries production, and will change the prevalence of crop pests. Many of these impacts are already measurable. Climate impact studies are dominated by those on crop yields despite the limitations of climate-crop modelling, with very little attention paid to more systems components of cropping, let alone other dimensions of food security.

Quantifying the Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Current status and trends

Water-energy-food (WEF) interconnection quantifications encounter methodological hurdles. In addition, existing calculation results are scattered across a wide collection of studies in multiple disciplines, which increases data collection and interpretation difficulties.

Peru

This website discusses Peru's GHG emissions, energy consumption, and water utilities. As Peru struggles to secure a reliable supply to meet user’s demand, more frequent and severe natural disasters pose an increasing burden on water utilities. Differences in altitudes require enormous amounts of energy to distribute the water and lead to high energy costs.

Pathways to Improved Water Security - Reflections

The author's approach in this publication is through a high-level reflection that explores the most pressing water challenges and highlights the innovative ways businesses are addressing these challenges. It also discusses the importance of multi-stakeholder collaboration and calls for a new approach to reporting, which integrates social and natural capital.

Pardee RAND Food-Energy-Water Interactive Index

The Pardee RAND Food-Energy-Water Interactive Index tool is a to help users visualize the relationship among the three key resources of Food-Energy-Water. FEW Index gives users a holistic view of the current status of resource provision for countries across the world. The Index can help begin to identify how different trends – for example, climate change or population growth – could affect resource security in the future.

Texas A&M: Water Energy Food (WEF) Nexus

The WEF Nexus builds on the integrated water resources management and introduces an holistic, trans-disciplinary, inclusive multi-stakeholder platform for resource allocation. The nexus platform allows the identification of local and site specific tradeoffs and hotspots, which facilitate dialogue among stakeholders. From among those hotspots, the role of soils in global water and food security, and the vital function of soil as a structured, dynamic, natural, organized system and of green water to food and water securities is explored.

PV Water Pumping for Carbon Sequestration in Dry Land Agriculture

This paper is inspired by theory related to the water-food-energy-climate nexus and suggests a novel model, suited for analyzing carbon sequestration in dry land agriculture using irrigation. The model is applied specifically to photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) systems for irrigation of grasslands in China.

Overcoming Food Security Challenges within an Energy/Water/Food Nexus (EWFN) Approach

Energy Water Food Nexus (EWFN) presents a valuable approach to achieving food security with a particular focus on sustainably balancing the growing demand for food with the constrained production capacity enabling supply streams. Three main pathways to overcome food security challenges and the role of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) were identified: employing sustainable production methods in agriculture, changing diets, and reducing waste in all stages of the food chain.

Columbia Water Center: Water-Food-Energy Nexus

The CWC studies how the water, food, and energy sectors are interrelated and how climate affects the relationship. On the applied side, the CWC aims to promote water and energy savings in the agricultural sector in water-stressed farming regions. Work has been done with governments in India to reform existing energy subsidies by incentivizing electricity savings that save both water and energy without decreasing crop yields. The CWC also develops seasonal forecasts to guide decision-making in the water and energy sectors.

Optimal Crop Choice, Irrigation Allocation, and the Impact of Contract Farming

The changing climate and concerns over food security are prompting a new look at the supply chain reliability of products derived from agriculture, and the potential role of contract farming as a mechanism to address climate and price risk while contributing toward crop diversification and water use efficiency is also emerging. This study provides a simple and stylized model for farmers’ decision making process for crop planning and water management in the contract farming context.

Opportunities for Renewable Energy in the Australian Water Sector

This study has evaluated the opportunities, barriers and current trends for renewable energy use in order to identify priority areas where ARENA could have the most potential impact in influencing improved renewable energy use within the sector. The study has identified a number of renewable energy opportunities relating to both the urban and agricultural water sectors, each having their own unique characteristics and advantages and which are outlined in this report.

Water, Food and Energy Nexus Iin Asia and the Pacific

This report traces the debate, analysis and action on the water, food and energy (WFE) security nexus. Considering the complex interactions of these three resources will require new institutional capacity in both industrialized and developing countries. For the nexus approach to achieve the twin goals of human well-being and green growth, sustainability must move center-stage, with attention given to ecosystem services.

Grace Communications Foundation: Nexus Food, Water and Energy

This website examines the "nexus" of where food, water and energy systems intersect. It takes water (lots of it) to create food and energy. It also takes energy to move, heat and treat water and to produce food, and sometimes we even use food crops as a source of energy. Resources are provided to find out how anyone - from a single person to an entire nation - can make more sustainable choices with nexus thinking.

Pacific Institute: Water-Energy Nexus

The Pacific Institute is a global water think tank that combines science-based thought leadership with active outreach to influence local, national and international efforts in developing sustainable water policies.The Pacific Institute conducts research on various facets of the water-energy nexus to better understand the barriers and opportunities for integration and to develop tools to promote integrated water and energy policy and decision-making.

The Water Energy Food Security Resource Platform

The Nexus approach highlights the interdependencies between achieving water, energy and food security for human well-being, e. g. basics services and economic development, while ensuring ecologically sustainable use of globally essen­tial resources. It is based on an understanding of the synergies and regulated negotiation of fair trade-offs between compet­ing uses of water, land and energy-related resources.

U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO)-Key Issues: Energy-Water Nexus

This website provides resources on water and energy. Water is needed for energy development and generation, and energy is required to supply, use, and treat drinking water and wastewater. Water and energy are also essential to our health, quality of life, and economic growth, and demand for both these resources continues to rise.

United Nations Water: Water, Food and Energy

This website examines why the water-food-energy nexus is central to sustainable development. Demand for all three is increasing, driven by a rising global population, rapid urbanization, changing diets and economic growth. Agriculture is the largest consumer of the world’s freshwater resources, and more than one-quarter of the energy used globally is expended on food production and supply.

Energy-Water Nexus Crosscut

The Energy-Water Nexus Crosscut Team (originally called the Water-Energy Tech Team) was formed in late 2012 to address these issues. In June 2014, DOE published The Water-Energy Nexus: Challenges and Opportunities, which laid the foundation for subsequent work for the Department. In 2015, DOE hosted an Energy-Water Nexus Roundtable Series that engaged stakeholders from industry, academia, utilities, state and local governments, National Laboratories, and other federal agencies in focused discussions about the energy-water nexus.

Opportunities For Knowledge Co-Production Across The Energy-Food-Water Nexus: Making Interdisciplinary Approaches Work For Better Climate Decision Making

The relationship between the energy-food-water nexus and the climate is non-linear, multi-sectoral and time sensitive, incorporating aspects of complexity and risk in climate related decision-making. This paper seeks to explore how knowledge co-production can help identify opportunities for building more effective, sustainable, inclusive and legitimate decision making processes on climate change. This would enable more resilient responses to climate risks impacting the nexus while increasing transparency, communication and trust among key actors.

On The Waterfront

This report describes how USAID is partnering with Jordan to tackle issues arising from the water-energy-food security nexus.

Renewables Readiness Assessment: The Philippines

This Renewables Readiness Assessment (RRA) was undertaken in co-operation with the Philippine government. This assessment identifies barriers and proposes key actions to strengthen policy, regulatory and institutional frameworks in order to accelerate renewable energy deployment in the Philippines.

100% Percent Electricity Generation through Renewable Energy by 2050: Assessment of Sri Lanka's Power Sector

This report has been developed with the purpose of designing and proposing scenarios and mechanisms through which the goal of 100 percent RE in electricity generation by 2050 can be achieved. It details among other things the plausible electricity generation mix as well as financial interventions required for Sri Lanka to achieve its goal while highlighting the numerous technical and economic challenges the country is likely to face on its road to a 100 percent RE power sector

Cost-competitive renewable power generation:Potential across South East Europe

Renewable energy has long been used in South East Europe, whether as fuelwood for heating or in the form of hydroelectric power generation. More recently, governments from Slovenia to Ukraine have pledged to shift to renewables to replace ageing fossil-based energy installations and reduce carbon-dioxide emissions. Clean, sustainable power sources should drive future economic growth.

Emerging Climate Change and Development Topics for Energy Sector Transformation: An EC-LEDS White Paper Series

​This paper explores the role of DG, with a high renewable energy contribution, in supporting low emission climate-resilient development. The paper presents potential impacts on development (via energy access), greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation, and climate resilience directly associated with DG, as well as specific actions that may enhance or increase the likelihood of climate and development benefits.