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Engendering Utilities: Improving Gender Diversity in Power Sector Utilities

The research summarized in this report is expected to help development professionals better understand how electricity utilities can increase the labor market participation of women in the energy sector. The data in the report facilitate the creation of company-specific interventions to improve women’s career prospects while improving the quality and cost of electricity services. And, the development hypothesis grounding this policy work suggests that mitigating gender disparities can increase operational efficiencies that will ultimately bring greater value to utility companies.

Opening Doors: Mapping The Landscape for Sustainable Energy, Gender Diversity and Social Inclusion

This report aims to systematically catalog the wide-ranging universe of stakeholders and initiatives that are addressing energy poverty and accelerating the global clean energy transition by empowering women and promoting gender equality and social inclusion. The research behind the report maps the landscape of what is happening around the world on gender and social inclusion, on who is doing it and how funds are flowing.

The Productivity of International Financial Institutions’ Energy Interventions

The report presents an approach to help international financial institutions deliver on their mandates to increase economic productivity and meet environmental and social objectives while lowering energy use from fossil fuel sources. The approach integrates climate and development goals into an expanded concept of energy productivity to enable the institutions to more clearly assess the impacts of their actual and potential energy interventions.

Decarbonization of Indian Railways

The authors of this report identify potential pathways to decarbonization of Indian Railways by 2030 and examine their cost-effectiveness and feasibility. For non-traction segment (energy use for the supporting infrastructure), they found that the decarbonization pathway of captive generation at an accelerated rate of decarbonization is even more cost-effective than in the traction segment.

Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Stakeholders Open Consultation

The Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari Land and Water Division (L&W Div.) carries out education and training, research activities and cooperation actions and projects through capacity building, in line with CIHEAM’s mission and strategy. Its main objective is to foster an integrated approach in Land and Water Resources Management within the Water-Energy-Food Nexus and Food Security. Its activities cover Technical, Institutional, Socio-Economic and Governance aspects.

The Status of the Water-Food-Energy Nexus in Asia and the Pacific

This report traces the debate, analysis and action on the water, food and energy (WFE) security nexus. Considering the complex interactions of these three resources will require new instructional capacity in both industrialized and developing countries. For the nexus approach to achieve the twin goals of human well-being and green growth, sustainability must move center-stage, with attention given to ecosystem services.

West-Wide Analysis of the Energy-Water Nexus.

The western U.S. is home to many of the nation’s fastest growing cities. Accompanying this growth is the increasing demand for water for municipal/industrial supply as well as for expanding thermoelectric power production. This competition over new water demands is playing out in some of our nation’s driest watersheds. To better understand the energy-water nexus in the West a coordinated analysis is being undertaken by federal and state agencies, the power industry, NGOs and other interested stakeholders.

Water–Energy–Food (WEF) Nexus Tool 2.0: Guiding Integrative Resource Planning and Decision-making

The paper introduces a framework and set of methodologies that define the linkages between the interconnected resources of water, energy and food, and enable explicit corresponding quantifications. The paper presents a new water–energy–food (WEF) Nexus modelling tool (WEF Nexus Tool 2.0) based on that framework which offers a common platform for scientists and policy-makers to evaluate scenarios and identify sustainable national resource allocation strategies. The tool is applied to a case study focusing on Qatar, a hyper-arid Gulf country.

Water-Food-Energy Nexus with Changing Agricultural Scenarios in India During Recent Decades

Meeting the growing water and food demands in a densely populated country like India is a major challenge. It requires an extensive investigation into the changing patterns of the checks and balances behind the maintenance of food security at the expense of depleting groundwater, along with high energy consumption. This report presents a comprehensive set of analyses which assess the present status of the water-food-energy nexus in India, along with its changing pattern, in the last few decades.

Water-Energy-Food Nexus within the Framework of International Water Law

International water law, which regulates the uses of international watercourses that are situated partly in different States, is a highly topical sector of law. In 2014, two conventions covering the subject matter entered into force globally. At the same time, a water-food-energy nexus has become part and parcel of the development canon that emphasizes the importance of the complex relationship between water, energy and food.

Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Transboundary River Basin: The Case of Tonle Sap Lake, Mekong River Basin

This article shares the experiences with using a nexus approach in Cambodia's Tonle Sap Lake area. It concludes that water, energy and food security are very closely linked, both in the Tonle Sap and in the transboundary Mekong River Basin generally. The current drive for large-scale hydropower threatens water and food security at both local and national scales. Hence, the nexus provides a relevant starting point for promoting sustainable development in the Mekong.

Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Large Asian River Basins

The water-energy-food nexus (“nexus”) is promoted as an approach to look at the linkages between water, energy and food. The articles of Water’s Special Issue “Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Large Asian River Basins” look at the applicability of the nexus approach in different regions and rivers basins in Asia. The articles provide practical examples of the various roles and importance of water-energy-food linkages, but also discuss the theoretical aspects related to the nexus.

Water-Food-Nutrition-Health Nexus: Linking Water to Improving Food, Nutrition and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa

Whereas sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA) water scarcity, food, nutrition and health challenges are well-documented, efforts to address them have often been disconnected. Given that the region continues to be affected by poverty and food and nutrition insecurity at national and household levels, there is a need for a paradigm shift in order to effectively deliver on the twin challenges of food and nutrition security under conditions of water scarcity. There is a need to link water use in agriculture to achieve food and nutrition security outcomes for improved human health and well-being.

Water-Food-Energy Nexus

This article provides information on solutions for the water-food-energy nexus, reflects on nexus interventions at the policy level (including a case study), taking a river basin approach to managing water across boundaries, and introducing nexus thinking in achieving sustainable development goals.

Water-Energy Nexus in Saudi Arabia

This work provides a comprehensive analysis of the interdependence of water and energy in Saudi Arabia, including collecting data to map out energy and water consumption across the Kingdom.

Water-Agriculture-Livelihood Security in India

Web page that describes how the Columbia Water Center is working to promote climate change adaptation and water sustainability while improving farmer livelihood and food security in three key regions of India.

Water, Energy, and Food Security in the Asia Pacific Region

Security measures of three resources; water, energy and food are analyzed for thirty two countries in the Asia Pacific region which are faced to Pacific Ocean, in terms of amounts of the resource, self-production, and diversity of sources of each resource. Diversity for all the three resources is also analyzed using surface water and groundwater for water sources; hydro power, geothermal power, solar, and biomass for energy; and cereals, vegetable, fruit, meat, and fish for food.

Water Savings of Crop Redistribution in the United States

Recent research on the food-water nexus has highlighted how some major agricultural regions of the world lack the water resources required to sustain current growth trends in crop production. To meet the increasing need for agricultural commodities with limited water resources, the water use efficiency of the agricultural sector must be improved. In this regard, recent work indicates that the often overlooked strategy of changing the crop distribution within presently cultivated areas offers promise.

Water Saving Potentials and Possible Trade-offs for Future Food and Energy Supply

Rising global population numbers and economic development could likely cause an increase in natural resource demand over the coming decades, while at the same time climate change might lead to lower overall water availability. The result could be an increased competition for water resources mainly in water-stressed regions of the world in the future.

Water Consumption Related to Different Diets in Mediterranean Cities

Providing the sustainable development goals (SDGs) water, food and energy security to cities relies strongly on resource use outside city borders. Many modern cities have recently invested in a sustainable urban water system, and score high in international city rankings regarding water management and direct urban water use. However, these rankings generally neglect external resource use for cities. This report quantifies the water resources related to food consumption in thirteen cities located in Mediterranean countries, by means of the water footprint (WF) concept.

Water and Energy Footprint of Irrigated Agriculture in the Mediterranean Region

Irrigated agriculture constitutes the largest consumer of freshwater in the Mediterranean region and provides a major source of income and employment for rural livelihoods. However, increasing droughts and water scarcity have highlighted concerns regarding the environmental sustainability of agriculture in the region. An integrated assessment combining a gridded water balance model with a geodatabase and GIS has been developed and used to assess the water demand and energy footprint of irrigated production in the region.

Water Resources Vulnerability Assessment of MENA Countries Considering Energy and Virtual Water Interactions

Scarce water resources of MENA countries are under multiple stressors: population growth, growing economies, land use changes, changing lifestyles or climatic variability. The vulnerability of such resources is often analyzed using simple, sector-specific indicators. This study develops a holistic country-based vulnerability assessment of water resources using an integrated index. This Country Vulnerability Index of Water Resources (CVIW) considers cross-sectoral linkages as a way to mitigate vulnerability.

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Urban Agriculture: Exploring the Food, Energy, Water, and Health Nexus in Hyderabad, India

Nutrients and water found in domestic treated wastewater are valuable and can be reutilized in urban agriculture as a potential strategy to provide communities with access to fresh produce. In this paper, this proposition is examined by conducting a field study in the rapidly developing city of Hyderabad, India. Urban agriculture trade-offs in water use, energy use and GHG emissions, nutrient uptake, and crop pathogen quality are evaluated, and irrigation waters of varying qualities (treated wastewater, versus untreated water and groundwater) are compared.

Vulnerabilities and Opportunities at the Nexus of Electricity, Water and Climate

The articles in this special issue examine the critical nexus of electricity, water, and climate, emphasizing connections among resources; the prospect of increasing vulnerabilities of water resources and electricity generation in a changing climate; and the opportunities for research to inform integrated energy and water policy and management measures aimed at reducing vulnerability and increasing resilience. The articles characterize several major themes emerging from this research and highlight some of the uptake of this work in both scientific and public spheres.

Variations in the Use of Resources for food: Land, Nitrogen Fertilizer and Food Nexus

Future dietary changes will increase the global demand for agricultural resources per person. Food production requires several resources which are interrelated: land, water, nutrients and energy. Other studies have calculated the per capita requirements of only one resource (nitrogen or land). This paper combines several parameters (diets, production systems and nitrogen-land trade-off) in one analysis in order to provide a more integrated assessment of the impacts of the use of agricultural resources for food.

Urban Food Consumption and Associated Water Resources: The Example of Dutch Cities

This paper analyzes the dependency of urban inhabitants on the resource water for food consumption, by means of Dutch cities. This paper found that in extremely urbanized municipalities like Amsterdam and Rotterdam, people eat more meat and cereals and less potatoes than in other Dutch municipalities. Their current water footprint (WF) related to food consumption is therefore higher (3245l/cap/day) than in strongly urbanized cities (3126l/cap/day).

Food Security

The USDA Office of the Chief Economist Climate Change Program Office webpage provides food security and related information.

Trees for life: The Ecosystem Service Contribution of Trees to Food Production and Livelihoods in the Tropics

Despite expanding interest in ecosystem service research over the past three decades, in-depth understanding of the contribution of forests and trees to food production and livelihoods remains limited. This review synthesizes the current evidence base examining the contribution of forest and trees to agricultural production and livelihoods in the tropics, where production often occurs within complex land use mosaics that are increasingly subjected to concomitant climatic and anthropogenic pressures.

Transferable Principles for Managing the Nexus: Lessons from Historical Global Water Modelling of Central Asia

The complex relationships within the water-energy-food security nexus tend to be place-specific, increasing the importance of identifying transferable principles to facilitate implementation of a nexus approach. This paper aims to contribute transferable principles by using global model data and concepts to illustrate and analyze the water history of Central Asia. This approach builds on extensive literature about Central Asia and global change as well as recent advances in global water modeling.

The Water-Land-Food Nexus of First-Generation Biofuels

This report provides a global assessment of biofuel crop production, reconstruct global patterns of biofuel crop/oil trade and determines the associated displacement of water and land use. INcluded is an evaluation food-energy tradeoff and the impact an increased reliance on biofuel would have on the number of people the planet can feed.

The Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus through the Lenses of the Value Chain and the Institutional Analysis and Development Frameworks

A number of frameworks have been used to study the water-food-energy nexus without consideration of the role of institutions in mediating environmental outcomes. This report aims to start filling the gap by combining insights from the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework and value chain analysis. Specifically food, energy and water value chains as networks of action situations (NAS) where actors' decisions depend not only on the institutional structure of a particular situation but also on the decisions made in related situations.

The Water-Energy-Food Nexus and the Transboundary Context: Insights from Large Asian Rivers

This article provides a set of definitions recognizing three perspectives that see the nexus as an analytical tool, governance framework and as an emerging discourse. It discusses the implications that an international transboundary context brings to the nexus and vice versa. Based on a comparative analysis of three Asian regions-Central Asia, South Asia and the Mekong Region-and their related transboundary river basins, we propose that the transboundary context has three major implications: diversity of scales and perspectives, importance of state actors and importance of politics.

The Water Energy Nexus, an ISO50001 Water Case Study and the need for a Water Value System

The scarcity and cost of water worldwide, along with water management practices within Europe, are highlighted in this paper. The heavy dependence of energy generation on water and the similar dependence of water treatment and distribution on energy, collectively termed the water–energy nexus, is detailed. A summary of the recently launched ISO14046 Water Footprint Standard along with other benchmarking measures are outlined. In addition, a case history of managing water using the Energy Management Standard ISO50001 is discussed in detail.

The Nonlinear Relation between Biofuels, Food Prices

This paper analyzes the relationship between the production of agricultural foods (cereals and vegetable oils) and the production of energy by using food. The observed increase in economic activities that use energy has had an impulse in the energy industry with higher prices. These prices make profitable the biofuel production, and this encourage the use of cereals for biofuel production, affecting the whole food chain.

The Nexus of Agricultural Water Use and Economic Development Level

This paper studied the relationship of water use for agricultural purposes in 154 countries and their economic development. In this study, the economic development in a country, as indicated by per capita GNI, was separated into 4 income groups, based on the World Bank criteria: (1) high income; (2) upper-middle income; (3) lower-middle income; and (4) low income. The results of the study revealed that water use for agricultural purposes usually takes the highest proportion of water consumption in low, lower-middle, and upper-middle income countries.

The Effect of Energy Constraints on Water Allocation Decisions: The Elaboration and Application of a System-Wide Economic-Water-Energy Model (SEWEM)

This is an illustrated for the case of the Aral Sea Basin (ASB) in Central Asia, where surface and groundwater supplies heavily depend on pumping and thus on energy availability. The findings underlined the over estimations of optimal water uses by a hydro-economic model that neglects energy constraints. Moreover, geographical conditions have affected the changes in optimal ratios of surface and groundwater uses and water distributions across the river basin when energy restrictions are taken into account.

The Effect of Energy Constraints on Water Allocation Decisions: The Elaboration and Application of a System-Wide Economic-Water-Energy Model (SEWEM)

This is an illustrated for the case of the Aral Sea Basin (ASB) in Central Asia, where surface and groundwater supplies heavily depend on pumping and thus on energy availability. The findings underlined the over estimations of optimal water uses by a hydro-economic model that neglects energy constraints. Moreover, geographical conditions have affected the changes in optimal ratios of surface and groundwater uses and water distributions across the river basin when energy restrictions are taken into account.

The `Seafood Gap' in the Food-Water Nexus Literature—Issues Surrounding Freshwater Use in Seafood Production Chains

This study 1) reviews freshwater use concepts as they relate to seafood production; 2) provides three cases to highlight the particular water use concerns for aquaculture, and; 3) outlines future directions to integrate seafood into the broader food-water nexus discussion. By revisiting water use concepts through a focus on seafood production systems, we highlight the key water use processes that should be considered for seafood production and offer a fresh perspective on the analysis of freshwater use in food systems more broadly.

The Water–Energy–Food Security Nexus: Challenges and Opportunities for Food Security in South Africa

The interconnectedness of water, energy and food production cycles translates into the interdependence of water, energy and food pricing. This paper interrogates the level of interconnectedness between these systems in South Africa and discusses how energy and water costs influence food prices in the country and affect the country's level of food security. In addtion this paper emphasizes that sustainable solutions to food security necessitate integrative thinking in the process of strategic planning for these resources.

The Role of Soils in Global Water and Food Security

This article explores the role of soil in bridging the food security gap, with special focus on North Africa. It also makes a call for more research investment in fundamental soils and water research in order to secure and maintain the roles of healthy soil for the to benefit of global economic security.

The Importance of Water Security for Sustainable Development in the Romanian Agri-Food Sector

The link between, water security and food security, are shown to be important in Romania. In agreement with the experts and considering the strategic relevance of these aspects, this report aims to stress more on the importance of investment in water infrastructure in the rural areas of Romania, to achieve the water security required for a sustainable agri-food and rural development. Highlighted, in this report are directions of integrated water management in view of a green economy.

The Food-Energy-Water Nexus

This is an overview of the food-energy-water nexus from Dr. Noureddin Driouech (UC Berkeley). Understanding the complex relationship between water, energy and food systems has become critically important to the development of a sustainable and secure future for all nations and regions. There are many synergies and tradeoffs between water, energy use and food production. Recognizing these synergies and balancing these tradeoffs is central to jointly ensuring the availability of water, energy and food.

The 'Nexus' as a Step Back Towards a More Coherent Water Resource Management Paradigm

This paper locates the emergence of the 'water-food-energy nexus' discourse as a step in the progression of the 'development versus environment' debate, which came into focus at the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The dominant water management paradigm after Rio was not the approach of Agenda 21, the Rio Programme of Action (UNCED, 1992) but loosely based on the outcome of the Dublin International Conference on Water and the Environment (ICWE, 1992).

Taking Complexity in Food Systems Seriously: An Interdisciplinary Analysis

This study analyzed the interdisciplinary triangulation of four divergent conceptual frameworks, each relevant to diagnosing food insecurity in developing countries. Notable tensions as well as synergistic interactions between agroecology, agricultural innovation systems, social–ecological systems, and political ecology were discovered. Cross-framework interactions enhance the understanding of how sectoral and macro-economic development strategies impact on livelihoods, availability, and access.

Tackling Trade-offs in the Nexus of Water, Energy and Food

This study explores processes that enable effective policies and practices for managing the links between water, energy, and food. Three case studies are assessed at different scales in the Mekong River basin, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe. There are considerable opportunities for improving outcomes for sustainable development by finding solutions that accommodate multiple objectives in the nexus.

Sustainable Maize Production and Consumption in China: Practices and Politics in Transition

This paper discusses the technological, political and socio-cultural factors central to such systemic changes, with a focus on maize as a core case study. In particular it presents and discusses two contending pathways towards more sustainable maize production and consumption: indigenous innovation and alternative pathway. The two pathways claim different environmental benefits and present different risks and political implications.

Sustainable Development and the Water–Energy–Food Nexus: A Perspective on Livelihoods

This paper presents a critical review of nexus approaches and identify potential linkages with sustainable livelihoods theory and practice, to deepen the understanding of the interrelated dynamics between human populations and the natural environment. Building upon this review, the concept of ‘environmental livelihood security’ was explored, which encompasses a balance between natural resource supply and human demand on the environment to promote sustainability – and develop an integrated nexus-livelihoods framework for examining the environmental livelihood security of a system.

World Bank: Water Website

As the world’s largest multilateral source of financing for water in developing countries, the World Bank is working closely with partners to achieve “A Water-Secure World for All,” by investing in water solutions that enable universal access, promote water security, and build resilient societies.

Food, Energy, Environment, Water Network

Food, energy, environment and water are critical systems to both people and landscapes. The FE2W Network works with decision-makers to improve the understanding of systemic risks and how to manage shocks across these systems.

Sustainable Agricultural Water Management in Pinios River Basin Using Remote Sensing and Hydrologic Modeling

The Pinios river basin is a major agricultural area in Greece, which faces environmental issues with water scarcity and nutrient pollution. Recent Earth Observation satellite data and ground truth information were combined to produce an updated land use map, focusing on irrigated crop areas. A process-based hydrological model (SWAT) was set up using the produced land use map. The model was calibrated and validated using observed streamflows and nutrient concentrations at selected gauging stations. Four irrigation and nutrient management practices related to resource efficiency (i.e.

Supporting Collaboration in Interdisciplinary Research of Water–Energy–Food Nexus by Means of Ontology Engineering

This study focus is on hydrology in the context of water–energy–food nexus. As well as ontology engineering, which is a base technology in Semantic Web Technology, as a method providing common terms, concepts, and semantics. This study discusses new hydrological insights, such as the effectiveness of ontology engineering approach in the process of collaborative research, and propose the way of ontology use contributing to interdisciplinary research through the experimental workshops of research development.

U.S. Administration of International Development (USAID): On The Waterfront

USAID is at the forefront of this water-energy-food security “nexus” approach. The Agency is working with local populations to promote smarter water and energy use, developing cutting-edge fuel-efficient technologies to irrigate crops, and exploring resource-efficient agricultural production methods. This integration is crucial to USAID’s work to usher in a sustainable future.

Simulating County-Level Crop Yields in the Conterminous United States Using the Community Land Model: The Effects of Optimizing Irrigation and Fertilization

Representing agricultural systems explicitly in Earth system models is important for understanding the water-energy-food nexus under climate change.The study applied Version 4.5 of the Community Land Model (CLM) at a 0.125 degree resolution to provide the first county-scale validation of the model in simulating crop yields over the Conterminous United States (CONUS). This study focused on corn and soybean that are both important grain crops and biofuel feedstocks (corn for bioethanol; soybean for biodiesel).

Integrated GREEN Solutions

Integrated GREEN Solutions provides a wide spectrum of environmental services. i.GREENs services can be summarized into three main groups: Training and research, Environmental Consultations, and Green Products and Solutions. The scope of services includes: Renewable energy and energy conservation, water and waste water management (including waste and graywater treatment and water conservation), waste management and recycling and green buildings design and implementation.

Securitizing Sustainability? Questioning the 'Water, Energy and Food-Security Nexus'

The water, energy and food-security nexus approach put forward by the Bonn2011 Conference highlights the need for an integrative approach towards issues of water, energy and food, and puts them under a general framework of security. While acknowledging the need for urgent solutions in terms of sustainability, the nexus approach, at the same time, makes a normative claim to tackle the needs of the poorest parts of the world population.

Water-Energy Nexus: Solutions To Meet A Growing Demand

Water and energy are vital to the prosperity of the United States. This report describes the intimate but easily overlooked connections between the two resources: energy production relies on enormous amounts of water, and developing and delivering water supplies consumes large amounts of energy. As demand for both water and energy is expected to increase with population growth, this report describes the challenges to addressing limited water and energy supplies. Obstacles exist at all scales and demand involvement of stakeholders, experts, and policymakers.

Scale Dependence of Controls on Groundwater Vulnerability in the Water–Energy–Food Nexus, California Coastal Basin Aquifer System

In the Coastal California Basin (CCB) aquifer system, the conflicts in the water-energy-food nexus are apparent because of intensive agricultural practices that have contributed to chronic nitrate− loading to groundwater. Evaluates the scale-dependent relations among source, transport, and attenuation factors that control nonpoint source nitrate− contamination in recently recharged CCB groundwater.

Resource Recovery and Recycling in Sanitation is Key to Health, Water and Food Security

This study argues that the issue of sanitation and the solutions to it extends far beyond its mere access; any envisioned improvement in sanitation technology must strive to rectify the shortcomings in centralized wastewater treatment wherein end-of-pipe technologies have been favored. Illustrates that simultaneous provisioning of ‘access’ and ‘improved sanitation’ through urine diversion and resource recovery can help create multiple-win scenarios in developing countries especially in terms of health, food and water security.

Reconciling Food Security and Bioenergy: Priorities for Action

Climate change will have far-reaching impacts on crop, livestock and fisheries production, and will change the prevalence of crop pests. Many of these impacts are already measurable. Climate impact studies are dominated by those on crop yields despite the limitations of climate-crop modelling, with very little attention paid to more systems components of cropping, let alone other dimensions of food security.

Quantifying the Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Current status and trends

Water-energy-food (WEF) interconnection quantifications encounter methodological hurdles. In addition, existing calculation results are scattered across a wide collection of studies in multiple disciplines, which increases data collection and interpretation difficulties.


This website discusses Peru's GHG emissions, energy consumption, and water utilities. As Peru struggles to secure a reliable supply to meet user’s demand, more frequent and severe natural disasters pose an increasing burden on water utilities. Differences in altitudes require enormous amounts of energy to distribute the water and lead to high energy costs.

Pathways to Improved Water Security - Reflections

The author's approach in this publication is through a high-level reflection that explores the most pressing water challenges and highlights the innovative ways businesses are addressing these challenges. It also discusses the importance of multi-stakeholder collaboration and calls for a new approach to reporting, which integrates social and natural capital.

Pardee RAND Food-Energy-Water Interactive Index

The Pardee RAND Food-Energy-Water Interactive Index tool is a to help users visualize the relationship among the three key resources of Food-Energy-Water. FEW Index gives users a holistic view of the current status of resource provision for countries across the world. The Index can help begin to identify how different trends – for example, climate change or population growth – could affect resource security in the future.

Texas A&M: Water Energy Food (WEF) Nexus

The WEF Nexus builds on the integrated water resources management and introduces an holistic, trans-disciplinary, inclusive multi-stakeholder platform for resource allocation. The nexus platform allows the identification of local and site specific tradeoffs and hotspots, which facilitate dialogue among stakeholders. From among those hotspots, the role of soils in global water and food security, and the vital function of soil as a structured, dynamic, natural, organized system and of green water to food and water securities is explored.

PV Water Pumping for Carbon Sequestration in Dry Land Agriculture

This paper is inspired by theory related to the water-food-energy-climate nexus and suggests a novel model, suited for analyzing carbon sequestration in dry land agriculture using irrigation. The model is applied specifically to photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) systems for irrigation of grasslands in China.

Overcoming Food Security Challenges within an Energy/Water/Food Nexus (EWFN) Approach

Energy Water Food Nexus (EWFN) presents a valuable approach to achieving food security with a particular focus on sustainably balancing the growing demand for food with the constrained production capacity enabling supply streams. Three main pathways to overcome food security challenges and the role of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) were identified: employing sustainable production methods in agriculture, changing diets, and reducing waste in all stages of the food chain.

Columbia Water Center: Water-Food-Energy Nexus

The CWC studies how the water, food, and energy sectors are interrelated and how climate affects the relationship. On the applied side, the CWC aims to promote water and energy savings in the agricultural sector in water-stressed farming regions. Work has been done with governments in India to reform existing energy subsidies by incentivizing electricity savings that save both water and energy without decreasing crop yields. The CWC also develops seasonal forecasts to guide decision-making in the water and energy sectors.

Optimal Crop Choice, Irrigation Allocation, and the Impact of Contract Farming

The changing climate and concerns over food security are prompting a new look at the supply chain reliability of products derived from agriculture, and the potential role of contract farming as a mechanism to address climate and price risk while contributing toward crop diversification and water use efficiency is also emerging. This study provides a simple and stylized model for farmers’ decision making process for crop planning and water management in the contract farming context.

Opportunities for Renewable Energy in the Australian Water Sector

This study has evaluated the opportunities, barriers and current trends for renewable energy use in order to identify priority areas where ARENA could have the most potential impact in influencing improved renewable energy use within the sector. The study has identified a number of renewable energy opportunities relating to both the urban and agricultural water sectors, each having their own unique characteristics and advantages and which are outlined in this report.

Water, Food and Energy Nexus Iin Asia and the Pacific

This report traces the debate, analysis and action on the water, food and energy (WFE) security nexus. Considering the complex interactions of these three resources will require new institutional capacity in both industrialized and developing countries. For the nexus approach to achieve the twin goals of human well-being and green growth, sustainability must move center-stage, with attention given to ecosystem services.

Grace Communications Foundation: Nexus Food, Water and Energy

This website examines the "nexus" of where food, water and energy systems intersect. It takes water (lots of it) to create food and energy. It also takes energy to move, heat and treat water and to produce food, and sometimes we even use food crops as a source of energy. Resources are provided to find out how anyone - from a single person to an entire nation - can make more sustainable choices with nexus thinking.

Pacific Institute: Water-Energy Nexus

The Pacific Institute is a global water think tank that combines science-based thought leadership with active outreach to influence local, national, and international efforts in developing sustainable water policies.The Pacific Institute conducts research on various facets of the water-energy nexus to better understand the barriers and opportunities for integration and to develop tools to promote integrated water and energy policy and decision-making.

The Water Energy Food Security Resource Platform

The Nexus approach highlights the interdependencies between achieving water, energy and food security for human well-being, e. g. basics services and economic development, while ensuring ecologically sustainable use of globally essen­tial resources. It is based on an understanding of the synergies and regulated negotiation of fair trade-offs between compet­ing uses of water, land and energy-related resources.

U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO)-Key Issues: Energy-Water Nexus

This website provides resources on water and energy. Water is needed for energy development and generation, and energy is required to supply, use, and treat drinking water and wastewater. Water and energy are also essential to our health, quality of life, and economic growth, and demand for both these resources continues to rise.

United Nations Water: Water, Food and Energy

This website examines why the water-food-energy nexus is central to sustainable development. Demand for all three is increasing, driven by a rising global population, rapid urbanization, changing diets and economic growth. Agriculture is the largest consumer of the world’s freshwater resources, and more than one-quarter of the energy used globally is expended on food production and supply.

Energy-Water Nexus Crosscut

The Energy-Water Nexus Crosscut Team (originally called the Water-Energy Tech Team) was formed in late 2012 to address these issues. In June 2014, DOE published The Water-Energy Nexus: Challenges and Opportunities, which laid the foundation for subsequent work for the Department. In 2015, DOE hosted an Energy-Water Nexus Roundtable Series that engaged stakeholders from industry, academia, utilities, state and local governments, National Laboratories, and other federal agencies in focused discussions about the energy-water nexus.

Opportunities For Knowledge Co-Production Across The Energy-Food-Water Nexus: Making Interdisciplinary Approaches Work For Better Climate Decision Making

The relationship between the energy-food-water nexus and the climate is non-linear, multi-sectoral and time sensitive, incorporating aspects of complexity and risk in climate related decision-making. This paper seeks to explore how knowledge co-production can help identify opportunities for building more effective, sustainable, inclusive and legitimate decision making processes on climate change. This would enable more resilient responses to climate risks impacting the nexus while increasing transparency, communication and trust among key actors.

On The Waterfront

This report describes how USAID is partnering with Jordan to tackle issues arising from the water-energy-food security nexus.

Renewables Readiness Assessment: The Philippines

This Renewables Readiness Assessment (RRA) was undertaken in co-operation with the Philippine government. This assessment identifies barriers and proposes key actions to strengthen policy, regulatory and institutional frameworks in order to accelerate renewable energy deployment in the Philippines.

100% Percent Electricity Generation through Renewable Energy by 2050: Assessment of Sri Lanka's Power Sector

This report has been developed with the purpose of designing and proposing scenarios and mechanisms through which the goal of 100 percent RE in electricity generation by 2050 can be achieved. It details among other things the plausible electricity generation mix as well as financial interventions required for Sri Lanka to achieve its goal while highlighting the numerous technical and economic challenges the country is likely to face on its road to a 100 percent RE power sector

Cost-competitive renewable power generation:Potential across South East Europe

Renewable energy has long been used in South East Europe, whether as fuelwood for heating or in the form of hydroelectric power generation. More recently, governments from Slovenia to Ukraine have pledged to shift to renewables to replace ageing fossil-based energy installations and reduce carbon-dioxide emissions. Clean, sustainable power sources should drive future economic growth.

Emerging Climate Change and Development Topics for Energy Sector Transformation: An EC-LEDS White Paper Series

​This paper explores the role of DG, with a high renewable energy contribution, in supporting low emission climate-resilient development. The paper presents potential impacts on development (via energy access), greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation, and climate resilience directly associated with DG, as well as specific actions that may enhance or increase the likelihood of climate and development benefits.

Energizing Finance: Scaling and Refining Finance in Countries with Large Energy Access Gaps

This report attempts to systematically analyze what finance countries are actually committing to energy access and what is known about the disbursement of development finance for energy access or the challenges facing energy access enterprises in delivering modern energy services to more people, more affordably. It is intended for government leaders, public and private finance players, and energy access enterprises at the international and domestic levels that all play critical roles in catalyzing action on access to electricity and clean cooking.

Energizing Equality: The Importance of Integrating Gender Equality Principles in National Energy Policies and Frameworks

This assessment was conducted to identify and understand the degree to which gender considerations have been addressed in energy policies, plans and strategies worldwide. The authors’ findings offer insights into the ways in which governments are recognizing gender considerations in the context of their energy policymaking and planning and trends with respect to key cross-cutting gender issues and regional comparisons.

Node and Regime: Interdisciplinary Analysis of Water-Energy-Food Nexus in the Mekong Region

This report re-examines the findings and recommendations of a major 'nexus' research-for-development project in the Mekong region. It shows that socio-political regimes constrain societal investment in three 'nodes' of the nexus previously identified as critical to manage sustainably: energy efficiency, wild-capture fisheries, and diversified smallholder agriculture. This report discusses implications for the 'nexus' as a new policy agenda and offer three propositions for ongoing inquiry and inclusive practice.

Next Generation Biorefineries will solve the Food, Biofuels, and Environmental Trilemma in the Energy–Food–Water Nexus

The goal of this opinion article is to clarify the future roles of biomass and biorefineries using quantitative data other than adjective words. In most scenarios, human beings could have enough biomass resource from plant photosynthesis for meeting the three goals at the same time: feeding 9 billion people, providing renewable materials, and producing transportation biofuels that could replace nearly all fossil fuel-based liquid fuels used in the land transportation in 2050.

Natural Resources in 2020, 2030, and 2040: Implications for the United States

This report identifies potential natural resource stresses (in terms of aggregate availability, absolute prices, or rapid price changes) and analyzes their likely impact on the United States and states/regions of interest to the United States. The report also explores how these stresses will interact with one another and other pre-existing conditions, including poverty, social tensions, environmental degradation, ineffectual leadership, and weak political institutions.

Multi-objective Optimization for Analysis of Changing Trade-offs in the Nepalese Water-Energy-Food Nexus with Hydropower Development

This report proposes a spatially explicit framework that couples two well-established water and power system models to develop a decision support tool combining multiple nexus objectives in a linear objective function. To demonstrate our framework, we compare eight Nepalese power development scenarios based on five nexus objectives: minimization of power deficit, maintenance of water availability for irrigation to support food self-sufficiency, reduction in flood risk, maintenance of environmental flows, and maximization of power export.

Modeling the Hydropower-Food Nexus in Large River Basins: A Mekong Case Study

The hydropower-food supply nexus in the Mekong River basins is assessed here in an influence model. This shows how altering one variable has consequent effects throughout the basin system. Options for strategic interventions to maximize benefits while minimizing negative impacts are identified that would enable national and sub-national policy makers to take more informed decisions across the hydropower, water and food supply sectors.

Modeling Global Water Use for the 21st Century: The Water Futures and Solutions (WFaS) Initiative and its Approaches

This study assesses the state of the art for estimating and projecting water use regionally and globally in a consistent manner. It provides an overview of different approaches, the uncertainty, strengths and weaknesses of the various estimation methods, types of management and policy decisions for which the current estimation methods are useful. This study discusses additional information most needed to be able to improve water use estimates and be able to assess a greater range of management options across the water-energy-climate nexus.

Millennium Villages Project-Mali

This paper discusses the Columbia Water Center’s (in conjunction with the Millennium Villages Project in Mali), the developed and tested economical, socially sustainable and scalable water allocation approaches that improved farmer livelihoods in the village clusters of Toya and Tiby.

Mapping Water Provisioning Services to Support the Ecosystem–Water–Food–Energy Nexus in the Danube River Basin

In this study we aimed to map and assess water provisioning services and associated benefits to support the ecosystem–water–food–energy nexus by taking into account environmental flow requirements for riverine ecosystems using the hydrological model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We developed a framework that includes indicators of renewable water (capacity of ecosystem to provide water) and water use (service flow) and we applied it in the Danube river basin over the period 1995–2004.

Mapping The Energy-Water Nexus around the Pacific Rim

In efforts to better inform the energy-water nexus dialogue, this paper builds on and extends the previously noted work in three important ways. First, water used in energy production is mapped across multiple economies and multiple use cases (e.g., thermoelectric power, fuel processing) at a subnational level to distinguish variability within economies. Second, the water used in energy production is put in context by drawing comparison with published measures of water risk (WRI 2015).

Making Sustainable Energy Choices

Economics, energy markets and policies, system performance, environmental regulations, carbon emissions, and social impacts are all important components of the energy-water-land nexus. NREL’s analysis, datasets, and advanced integrated modeling capabilities help illuminate the connections between energy, environment, economy, security, and quality of life.

Living within Humanity's Life-Support System

This paper addresses the state-of-knowledge of complex adaptive systems -- including their operation via cycles of innovation and co-adaptation -- to sustain continuous, whole-system complexity and full-functionality. Also explores the integrative management of energy, water and food systems –WEF Security Nexus -- as catalyst for living within complex systems; and how integrative management builds self-reliance and local eco-entrepreneurs essential to achieving the global goal of sustainability.

Leveraging Agroecology for Solutions in Food, Energy, and Water

The abstract argues that expanding agroecological principles, tools, and technologies and enhancing biological diversity can address soil degradation and biodiversity loss due challenges due to interconnected food, energy and water systems and achieve better socioeconomic outcomes.

The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Arid Regions: The Politics of Problemsheds

This paper analyzes institutional “problem sheds” that shape the implementation of nexus initiatives in arid regions of the United States, the Persian/Arabian Gulf, and China. Analysis reveals how nexus approaches are conditioned by property rights regimes, economic growth strategies based on resource extraction, and the ability to externalize environmental costs to other regions and states.

Water and Wastewater Companies for Climate Mitigation

The Water and Wastewater Companies for Climate Mitigation (WaCCliM) project is demonstrating that the water sector can reduce greenhouse gas emissions: in the short-term by improving operational efficiency and adopting energy efficiency measures; in the long-term by proactively upgrading and reforming their drinking water and wastewater systems. Water utilities working with WaCCliM are becoming sector leaders, and are seizing the opportunity to become more efficient and effective in an uncertain future.

Irrigation Project Success in Mali

This blog post discusses an agricultural irrigation project in Mali that increased the access to water to over 300 farms and 3,000 residents

Implementation and Case Studies

The Water, Energy & Food Security Resource Platform is an independent information and facilitating platform. Highlighting the interdependencies between achieving water, energy and food security for human well-being, e. g. basics services and economic development, while ensuring ecologically sustainable use of globally essential resources.

Renewable Energy in the Water, Energy & Food Nexus

Providing the broad analysis that has been lacking on the interactions of renewables within water and food sectors. Building on existing literature, the study examines both global and country-specific cases to highlight how renewable energy can address the trade-offs, helping to address the world’s pressing water, energy and food challenges.

Hydropower Versus Irrigation - An Analysis of Gobal Patterns

While reservoir operations for hydroelectricity production might support irrigation, there are also well-known cases where hydroelectricity production reduces water availability for irrigated food production. This study assesses these relationships at the global level using machine-learning techniques and multi-source datasets.

Growing More with Less: Feed the Future and Water

Feed the Future (U.S. Government's Global Hunger and Food Security Initiative) webpage that provides basic information for cooperation on water usage, access to irrigation, addressing climate change, insuring farmers against drought, water for food/water for health, growing more with less, and smarter farming to conserve water.

Good Governance for Food, Water and Energy Security

This paper argues that given the unique regional and sector challenges of food, water and energy security, their nexus must be deconstructed to find effective, contextualized solutions. And governance challenges are at the heart of the nexus in each region.

Global Food Security

A Intelligence Community Assessment report that discusses the topic of global food security as it relates to increasing food security, the regions at risk, improving food access, and the implications for the United States.

Frontiers of the Food-Energy-Water Trilemma: Sri Lanka as a Microcosm of Tradeoffs

This paper establishes tradeoff frontiers (TFs) as a method useful in illustrating the system-level tradeoffs between allocating water for food and water for energy. This paper illustrates how TFs can be used to (1) show how scarcity in water resources affects the tradeoffs between food and energy and (2) explore the political and social constraints that can move production away from what is feasible technically.

Food, Energy, and Water Transformative Research Opportunities in the Mathematical and Physical Sciences

A report by the Mathematical and Physical Sciences Advisory Committee (MPSAC) Subcommittee on Food Security. The report addresses the areas of ensuring a sustainable water supply for agriculture, “Closing the Loop” for nutrient life cycles, crop protection, innovations to prevent waste of food and energy, sensors for food security and safety, and maximizing biomass conversion to fuels, chemicals, food and materials.

The Importance of Integrating Gender Equality Principles in National Energy Policies and Frameworks

This assessment was conducted to identify and understand the degree to which gender considerations have been addressed in energy policies, plans and strategies worldwide. The findings reported offer insights into the ways in which governments are recognizing gender considerations in the context of their energy policymaking and planning and trends with respect to key cross-cutting gender issues and regional comparisons.

Food Consumption and Related Water Resources in Nordic Cities

This paper quantifies this water dependency with respect to food consumption in nine cities located in the five Nordic countries (Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Iceland), by means of the water footprint concept. Nordic urban dwellers can save a lot of water by shifting to a healthy diet.

Food and Human Security in Sub-Saharan Africa

This paper seeks to approach the paradigm of human security from the perspectives of food security, which brings in the discussions of the new patterns of policies adopted in six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Guide on Gender Mainstremaing Energy and Climate Change Projects

This guide aims to help the staff of UNIDO’s Energy and Climate Change (ECC) Branch apply a gender perspective into their work and, more specifically, to mainstream gender throughout the project cycle. The guide can also be useful for national and local counterparts, agencies, international and private-sector partners, and individual experts who work closely with the ECC Branch.

Food Waste to Energy: How Six Water Resource Recovery Facilities are Boosting Biogas Production and the Bottom Line

This report presents the co-digestion practices, performance, and the experiences of six such Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs). The report describes the types of food waste co-digested and the strategies—specifically, the tools, timing, and partnerships—employed to manage the material. Additionally, the report describes how the facilities manage wastewater solids, providing information about power production, biosolids use, and program costs.

Examples of Positive Bioenergy and Water Relationships

This publication illustrates an encouraging variety both in terms of bioenergy systems and geographical distribution, and they all show how solutions can be found that produce bioenergy while contributing positively to the state of water. These experiences are also meant to serve as sources of inspiration that other bioenergy producers can use to enhance the sustainability of their own activities.

Evaluation of External Virtual Water Export and Dependency through Crop Trade: an Asian Case Study

The aim of this study was to evaluate virtual water export through five crops (barley, rice, maize, soybeans, and wheat) in terms of the external virtual water rate, within and outside of Asia from 2000 to 2012, and in comparison with that within and outside the European Union. These results provide information necessary for the development of an integrated water strategy in Asia, and could convince the main Asian importers of the risks of serious dependency on foreign water resources.

Environmental Sustainability issues in the Food–Energy–Water Nexus: Breakfast Cereals and Snacks

This study explores the environmental sustainability issues in the food–energy–water nexus by considering breakfast cereals manufactured by one of the world’s largest producers, Kellogg Europe. A life cycle assessment has been carried out for these purposes with the aim of helping the Company to integrate environmental sustainability considerations into the design of their products and packaging.

Environmental Impacts of Food Consumption in Europe

In order to assess the environmental impact of food consumption, a lifecycle assessment (LCA)-based approach has been applied to a basket of products, selected as being representative of EU consumption. The environmental impact of the average food consumption of European citizens was assessed using the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) methodology.

Energy-Water Nexus in Urban Industrial System

This work proposed an environmental input-output analysis based methodological model to depict the nexus and reflect its dualistic impacts on the nature, which was applied into Beijing's case. Results show the agriculture and manufacturing sectors had the higher nexus intensities, playing as major energy consumers with higher embodied water consumption via the urban industrial chain.

Connecting the Resource Nexus to Basic Urban Service Provision – with a Focus on Water-Energy Interactions in New York City

This paper proposes and applies a technology-independent “reference resource-to-service system” framework for concurrent evaluation of urban water and energy system interventions and their ‘nexus’ or ‘interlinkages’. In a concrete application, data that approximate New York City conditions are used to evaluate a limited set of interventions in the residential sector, spanning from low-flow toilet shifts to extensive green roof installations.

Closing the Governance Gaps in the Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Insights from Integrative Governance

This report argues that connecting the nexus to decision-making processes requires: i) rethinking the boundaries of nexus analysis vis-à-vis other sectors and levels; ii) elaboration of shared principles that can guide decision-making towards policy coherence − or an appropriate form of fragmentation − in different contexts; iii) viewing policy coherence as a continuous process of changing values and perception rather than as an outcome.

Climate Cange Vulnerability in the Food, Energy, and Water Nexus: Concerns for Agricultural Production in Arizona and its Urban Export Supply

A dynamic simulation model of the food-energy-water nexus in Arizona to assess the potential impacts of increasing temperatures and disruptions to energy and water supplies on crop irrigation requirements, on-farm energy use, and yield. This model identifies critical points of intersection between energy, water, and agricultural systems and quantify expected increases in resource use and yield loss.

The Water–Energy Nexus in Middle East and North Africa

This paper performs a country-level quantitative assessment of this nexus in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The results show a highly skewed coupling with a relatively weak dependence of energy systems on fresh water, but a strong dependence of water abstraction and production systems on energy. The results suggest that policy makers should explicitly consider energy implications in water intensive food imports and future restructuring of water demand. This paper will help in making more integrated decisions on water and energy infrastructure systems.

Gender and Energy Equality E-Learning Course

This self-paced course was developed for social development and energy specialists, policymakers, practitioners and members of civil society interested in learning about the linkages between gender equality and energy using recent research, data and country-level experiences.

Can Energy Systems Models Address the Resource Nexus?

This study provides an introduction into the concept of the resource nexus, general limitations of energy systems modelling tools and an overview of specific tools that have been or could potentially be used in addressing the nexus.

Climate Change and Food Security

A fact sheet from the U.S. Government's Global Hunger & Food Security Initiative "Feed the Future" on climate change and food security.

Broadening the Lens: A Regional Perspective on Water, Food And Energy Integration in SADC

Sustainable development and growth can be achieved by better management of the world's ecosystems and a more strategic use of water, land and other natural resources. Water, energy and food resources are not spread evenly across the Southern African Development Community (SADC) resulting in an imbalance in endowments. Broadening the lens of integrated and regional resources planning in SADC may increase the resilience of the region and optimize the use of limited natural resources.

Balancing Ecosystem Services with Energy and Food Security – Assessing Trade-Offs from Reservoir Operation and Irrigation Investments in Kenya's Tana Basin

This research seeks firstly to identify and help decision-makers visualize reservoir management strategies which result in the best possible (Pareto-optimal) allocation of benefits between sectors. Secondly, it seeks to show how trade-offs between achievable benefits shift with the implementation of proposed new rice, cotton and biofuel irrigation projects.

A Fast Track Approach to Deal with the Temporal Dimension of Crop Water Footprint

This article demonstrates the feasibility of the Fast Track (FT) approach to deal with the temporal dimension of crop water footprint and provide estimates of the temporal variability of crop water footprint (CWF). The method is tested by comparing the annual CWF country values of wheat, rice, maize, and soybean obtained through the FT approach with those obtained by a detailed model accounting for the changes of yield and evapotranspiration over time.

Food, Water, and Energy Security in South Asia: a Nexus Perspective from the Hindu Kush Himalayan Region

Using secondary data from diverse sources, this paper explores the food, water, and energy nexus from a regional dimension, emphasizing the role of Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) ecosystem services in sustaining food, water, and energy security downstream. The analysis reveals that the issues and challenges in the food, water, and energy sectors are interwoven in many complex ways and cannot be managed effectively without cross-sectoral integration.

Life Cycle Water Use of Ford Focus Gasoline and Ford Focus Electric Vehicles

To place future discussions of sustainable mobility on a firmer technical basis, this report discusses the results of a cradle-to-grave assessment of water withdrawal and water consumption for the gasoline internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) and battery electric vehicle (BEV) variants of the 2012 Ford Focus.

Water Energy Nexus

This document from the International Energy Agency that provides an overview of the water-energy nexus. Topics include: Water for energy, Energy for water, and Stress points and solutions to the water-energy nexus.

UNESCO, Climate Change and COP 21

UNESCO’s contributions to rethinking sustainability globally include a wide range of projects. Grouped under five main themes covered by our mandate, our actions reflect the multifaceted nature of climate challenges and associated mitigation and adaptation solutions. These include: Climate Knowledge, Science and Culture, Climate Change Education and Public Awareness, Climate Change and Water Security, The Ocean and Climate Change, and UNESCO Sites: A Climate Change Observatory.

Towards Understanding the Integrative Approach of the Water, Energy and Food Nexus

This wealth of publications is reviewed in an endeavor to: (1) reveal the lines of justification for the need of the water energy food nexus (WEF nexus) debate and (2) identify the range of tools for analyzing the interdependent resource issues of the nexus using an integrated framework of science and policy. There are three drivers behind the emergence of the nexus thinking. These are a) increasing resource interlinks due to growing scarcities, b) recent resource supply crises, and c) failures of sector-driven management strategies.

Realising the Water, Energy and Food Security Nexus

This report provides an overview of the nexus, including nexus opportunity areas from the German Foreign Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development. It also includes several nexus initiatives that have been undertaken since the Bonn 2011 Conference. Finally it provides information on implementing the nexus perspective in German development cooperation, including examples of projects and nexus dialogues.

Colocation Opportunities for Large Solar Infrastructures and Agriculture in Drylands

The goal of this study was to explore opportunities to colocate solar infrastructures and agricultural crops to maximize the efficiency of land and water use. The study investigated the energy inputs/outputs, water use, greenhouse gas emissions, and economics of solar installations in northwestern India in comparison to aloe vera cultivation, another widely promoted and economically important land use in these systems.

Nepal Energy Sector Assessment, Strategy, and Road Map

This publication highlights Nepal’s energy sector performance, major development constraints, and government development plans and strategy. It outlines the future support strategy of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), whose main focus is to make the country’s energy sector a key driver of inclusive economic growth.

Gender Tool Kit: Energy Going Beyond the Meter

The purpose of the toolkit is to assist staff and consultants of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in conceptualizing and designing gender-responsive projects in the energy sector. ADB’s Policy on Gender and Development mandates its investments in all sectors to promote gender mainstreaming. ADB projects categorized with “gender mainstreaming” require a gender action plan (GAP) and gender targets and indicators in the project design and monitoring framework. The tool kit provides tips to designing the GAP and gender targets and indicators relevant to the specific subsector context.

Sustainable Energy for All: The Gender Dimensions

This guidance note, which was prepared for the regional and country offices of UN Women and UNIDO, provides an overview of issues related to gender equality, women’s empowerment and sustainable energy. It aims to provide guidance for UN programming and work with policymakers around sustainable energy that integrates the gender dimensions.


With this database for small-scale off-grid sustainable energy products and components, compare and examine the challenges associated with navigating sustainable energy markets in 80 developing countries.

Medium Size PV Plant

This application note provides an overview of relevant characteristics and considerations regarding commercial and tertiary sector photovoltaic (PV) power plants that are 100 kW to 2 MW in capacity. It is aimed at potential investors, including industrial and tertiary sector companies, communities and financial institutions. The publication is intended to fill the gap between basic papers for generalists and analyses that are very technical.

Adapting Market Design to High Shares of Variable Renewable Energy

The report analyses challenges and solutions, and it provides recommendations on how to adapt electricity market design to high shares of variable renewable energy. It focuses on two aspects of liberalized power systems: (1) wholesale market design and (2) distribution networks and distributed energy resources.

EEFIG Underwriting Toolkit

This toolkit is designed to help financial institutions scale up their deployment of capital into energy efficiency.

The Empirics of Enabling Investment and Innovation in Renewable Energy

This working paper undertakes econometric analysis to assess the impacts of climate mitigation policies and the quality of the investment environment on investment and innovation in renewable power in OECD and G20 countries. It also assesses how countries’ investment environments interact with climate mitigation policies to influence investment and patent activity in renewable power.

A Powering Agriculture Guide on Integrating Gender in the Deployment of Clean Energy Solutions for Agriculture

This document is intended to help unlock the potential demand for clean energy solutions (CES) among women farmers, who have been under-targeted and underserved. It provides best practices on how to integrate gender at all levels—individual community, and within CES organization. The guide includes a checklist that can help in developing a gender-responsive strategy to increase the sales of CES technology to both female and male clients.

Pathways to 100: An Energy Supply Transformation Primer for U.S. Cities

This document provides a high-level map of pathways for municipal energy supply transformation that is structured around a three-step process for cities to identify a pathway forward: (1) map the city’s energy landscape, (2) identify available strategies and (3) organize for energy transformation.

Renewable Energy Auctions: Analysing 2016

This report provides updates on auctions as a mechanism for price discovery and market development. Chapter 1 gives the highlights of renewable energy auctions held or announced in 2016. Chapter 2 reviews the main trends and analyses the evolution of prices resulting from auctions. Price determinants, analyzed in Chapter 3, include access to finance and country-specific conditions, investor confidence and a conducive environment, other policies aimed at supporting renewable energy development, and auction design elements.

The Political Economy of Clean Energy Transitions

This book steps into the new world of broad-scale and locally relevant policy experimentation. Chapters focus on the political economy of clean energy transition and emphasize specific issues encountered in both developed and developing countries. The authors contribute diversity of experience drawn from all major regions of the world, representing a compendium of what has been learned from recent initiatives—mostly at the country level—to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Leonardo Energy Good Practice Guide

The guides provided on this website covers power quality, energy efficiency, renewable energy systems, electrical networks and electricity for buildings. The site provides thematic overviews of more than 70 published application notes in 10 themes.

Credit Guarantees: Challenging Their Role in Improving Access to Finance in the Pacific Region

Despite adequate liquidity, commercial banks in the Pacific are often reluctant to extend business credit, which is a serious constraint to business operations and broader economic development. The Pacific Private Sector Development Initiative—a regional technical assistance facility cofinanced by ADB, the Government of Australia, and the Government of New Zealand—has undertaken landmark secured transaction reforms in eight Pacific Island countries.

Evolution of Incentives to Sustain the Transition to a Global Electric Vehicle Fleet

This report assesses near-term electric vehicle market trends to inform on how governments might optimally evolve their electric vehicle incentive programs to sustain market growth. The authors analyze prevailing per-vehicle purchasing incentives and how government outlays increase to maintain these incentives as the market grows. They then assess how electric vehicle costs—for varying electric ranges—are reduced in the approximate time frame of 2020–2025 due to increased battery production.