The research summarized in this report is expected to help development professionals better understand how electricity utilities can increase the labor market participation of women in the energy sector. The data in the report facilitate the creation of company-specific interventions to improve women’s career prospects while improving the quality and cost of electricity services. And, the development hypothesis grounding this policy work suggests that mitigating gender disparities can increase operational efficiencies that will ultimately bring greater value to utility companies.
This report aims to systematically catalog the wide-ranging universe of stakeholders and initiatives that are addressing energy poverty and accelerating the global clean energy transition by empowering women and promoting gender equality and social inclusion. The research behind the report maps the landscape of what is happening around the world on gender and social inclusion, on who is doing it and how funds are flowing.
Background Study: Developing a Legal Instrument for Gender Assessments in Energy Infrastructure Planning and Development within ECOWAS
The study seeks to set the stage for the creation and adoption of an ECOWAS regional legal instrument for conducting gender assessments of energy infrastructure projects, including extraction of fuel sources, storage, generation, transmission and distribution of energy, whether from solar, wind, biomass, fossil, geothermal, ocean, nuclear or hydro sources.
The report presents an approach to help international financial institutions deliver on their mandates to increase economic productivity and meet environmental and social objectives while lowering energy use from fossil fuel sources. The approach integrates climate and development goals into an expanded concept of energy productivity to enable the institutions to more clearly assess the impacts of their actual and potential energy interventions.
The authors of this report identify potential pathways to decarbonization of Indian Railways by 2030 and examine their cost-effectiveness and feasibility. For non-traction segment (energy use for the supporting infrastructure), they found that the decarbonization pathway of captive generation at an accelerated rate of decarbonization is even more cost-effective than in the traction segment.
The Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari Land and Water Division (L&W Div.) carries out education and training, research activities and cooperation actions and projects through capacity building, in line with CIHEAM’s mission and strategy. Its main objective is to foster an integrated approach in Land and Water Resources Management within the Water-Energy-Food Nexus and Food Security. Its activities cover Technical, Institutional, Socio-Economic and Governance aspects.
The Study covers regions in: Asia, Europe, Oceania, North America, South America, Middle East and Africa. The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze the water, energy, and food nexus and regions of study, nexus keywords and stakeholders in order to understand the current state of nexus research.
Australia Food Water Energy Nexus: Australia a Long Term Sustainable & Reliable Strategically Aligned Food Security Value Chain Partner
This presentation shows global export food demand dynamics; sustainability of production resource (arable land & water utilization); food security - future supply demand and affordability pressures; Australia a long term & reliable strategically aligned food security value chain partner.
This report traces the debate, analysis and action on the water, food and energy (WFE) security nexus. Considering the complex interactions of these three resources will require new instructional capacity in both industrialized and developing countries. For the nexus approach to achieve the twin goals of human well-being and green growth, sustainability must move center-stage, with attention given to ecosystem services.
The western U.S. is home to many of the nation’s fastest growing cities. Accompanying this growth is the increasing demand for water for municipal/industrial supply as well as for expanding thermoelectric power production. This competition over new water demands is playing out in some of our nation’s driest watersheds. To better understand the energy-water nexus in the West a coordinated analysis is being undertaken by federal and state agencies, the power industry, NGOs and other interested stakeholders.
The paper introduces a framework and set of methodologies that define the linkages between the interconnected resources of water, energy and food, and enable explicit corresponding quantifications. The paper presents a new water–energy–food (WEF) Nexus modelling tool (WEF Nexus Tool 2.0) based on that framework which offers a common platform for scientists and policy-makers to evaluate scenarios and identify sustainable national resource allocation strategies. The tool is applied to a case study focusing on Qatar, a hyper-arid Gulf country.
Meeting the growing water and food demands in a densely populated country like India is a major challenge. It requires an extensive investigation into the changing patterns of the checks and balances behind the maintenance of food security at the expense of depleting groundwater, along with high energy consumption. This report presents a comprehensive set of analyses which assess the present status of the water-food-energy nexus in India, along with its changing pattern, in the last few decades.
International water law, which regulates the uses of international watercourses that are situated partly in different States, is a highly topical sector of law. In 2014, two conventions covering the subject matter entered into force globally. At the same time, a water-food-energy nexus has become part and parcel of the development canon that emphasizes the importance of the complex relationship between water, energy and food.
Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Transboundary River Basin: The Case of Tonle Sap Lake, Mekong River Basin
This article shares the experiences with using a nexus approach in Cambodia's Tonle Sap Lake area. It concludes that water, energy and food security are very closely linked, both in the Tonle Sap and in the transboundary Mekong River Basin generally. The current drive for large-scale hydropower threatens water and food security at both local and national scales. Hence, the nexus provides a relevant starting point for promoting sustainable development in the Mekong.
The water-energy-food nexus (“nexus”) is promoted as an approach to look at the linkages between water, energy and food. The articles of Water’s Special Issue “Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Large Asian River Basins” look at the applicability of the nexus approach in different regions and rivers basins in Asia. The articles provide practical examples of the various roles and importance of water-energy-food linkages, but also discuss the theoretical aspects related to the nexus.
Water-Food-Nutrition-Health Nexus: Linking Water to Improving Food, Nutrition and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa
Whereas sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA) water scarcity, food, nutrition and health challenges are well-documented, efforts to address them have often been disconnected. Given that the region continues to be affected by poverty and food and nutrition insecurity at national and household levels, there is a need for a paradigm shift in order to effectively deliver on the twin challenges of food and nutrition security under conditions of water scarcity. There is a need to link water use in agriculture to achieve food and nutrition security outcomes for improved human health and well-being.
This article provides information on solutions for the water-food-energy nexus, reflects on nexus interventions at the policy level (including a case study), taking a river basin approach to managing water across boundaries, and introducing nexus thinking in achieving sustainable development goals.
This article introduces a broad water-energy-food nexus platform that outlines the dynamic of three separate areas: scientific, private sector/supply chain, and government. Provides a sample of existing tools, and how tool analytics support dialogue.
This work provides a comprehensive analysis of the interdependence of water and energy in Saudi Arabia, including collecting data to map out energy and water consumption across the Kingdom.
Web page that describes how the Columbia Water Center is working to promote climate change adaptation and water sustainability while improving farmer livelihood and food security in three key regions of India.
Security measures of three resources; water, energy and food are analyzed for thirty two countries in the Asia Pacific region which are faced to Pacific Ocean, in terms of amounts of the resource, self-production, and diversity of sources of each resource. Diversity for all the three resources is also analyzed using surface water and groundwater for water sources; hydro power, geothermal power, solar, and biomass for energy; and cereals, vegetable, fruit, meat, and fish for food.
Recent research on the food-water nexus has highlighted how some major agricultural regions of the world lack the water resources required to sustain current growth trends in crop production. To meet the increasing need for agricultural commodities with limited water resources, the water use efficiency of the agricultural sector must be improved. In this regard, recent work indicates that the often overlooked strategy of changing the crop distribution within presently cultivated areas offers promise.
Rising global population numbers and economic development could likely cause an increase in natural resource demand over the coming decades, while at the same time climate change might lead to lower overall water availability. The result could be an increased competition for water resources mainly in water-stressed regions of the world in the future.
Providing the sustainable development goals (SDGs) water, food and energy security to cities relies strongly on resource use outside city borders. Many modern cities have recently invested in a sustainable urban water system, and score high in international city rankings regarding water management and direct urban water use. However, these rankings generally neglect external resource use for cities. This report quantifies the water resources related to food consumption in thirteen cities located in Mediterranean countries, by means of the water footprint (WF) concept.
These personal reflections from J. Graziano da Silva are on water resources and food security.
Irrigated agriculture constitutes the largest consumer of freshwater in the Mediterranean region and provides a major source of income and employment for rural livelihoods. However, increasing droughts and water scarcity have highlighted concerns regarding the environmental sustainability of agriculture in the region. An integrated assessment combining a gridded water balance model with a geodatabase and GIS has been developed and used to assess the water demand and energy footprint of irrigated production in the region.
Water Resources Vulnerability Assessment of MENA Countries Considering Energy and Virtual Water Interactions
Scarce water resources of MENA countries are under multiple stressors: population growth, growing economies, land use changes, changing lifestyles or climatic variability. The vulnerability of such resources is often analyzed using simple, sector-specific indicators. This study develops a holistic country-based vulnerability assessment of water resources using an integrated index. This Country Vulnerability Index of Water Resources (CVIW) considers cross-sectoral linkages as a way to mitigate vulnerability.
Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Urban Agriculture: Exploring the Food, Energy, Water, and Health Nexus in Hyderabad, India
Nutrients and water found in domestic treated wastewater are valuable and can be reutilized in urban agriculture as a potential strategy to provide communities with access to fresh produce. In this paper, this proposition is examined by conducting a field study in the rapidly developing city of Hyderabad, India. Urban agriculture trade-offs in water use, energy use and GHG emissions, nutrient uptake, and crop pathogen quality are evaluated, and irrigation waters of varying qualities (treated wastewater, versus untreated water and groundwater) are compared.
The articles in this special issue examine the critical nexus of electricity, water, and climate, emphasizing connections among resources; the prospect of increasing vulnerabilities of water resources and electricity generation in a changing climate; and the opportunities for research to inform integrated energy and water policy and management measures aimed at reducing vulnerability and increasing resilience. The articles characterize several major themes emerging from this research and highlight some of the uptake of this work in both scientific and public spheres.
Future dietary changes will increase the global demand for agricultural resources per person. Food production requires several resources which are interrelated: land, water, nutrients and energy. Other studies have calculated the per capita requirements of only one resource (nitrogen or land). This paper combines several parameters (diets, production systems and nitrogen-land trade-off) in one analysis in order to provide a more integrated assessment of the impacts of the use of agricultural resources for food.
This paper analyzes the dependency of urban inhabitants on the resource water for food consumption, by means of Dutch cities. This paper found that in extremely urbanized municipalities like Amsterdam and Rotterdam, people eat more meat and cereals and less potatoes than in other Dutch municipalities. Their current water footprint (WF) related to food consumption is therefore higher (3245l/cap/day) than in strongly urbanized cities (3126l/cap/day).
This study explores the connectivity of upland farmers and downstream fishers through interlinkages of water, energy and food within the Dampalit sub-watershed of Laguna Lake, Philippines. The aim of the study is to yield policy relevant results to improve the status of the water resources and food products and to reduce possible user conflicts.
Understanding Barriers to Decision Making in the UK Energy-Food-Water Nexus: The Added Value of Interdisciplinary Approaches
Given the multidimensional and complex nature of the nexus, a transdisciplinary approach to knowledge development through co-production is needed to timely and effectively inform the decision making processes to build societal resilience to these shocks going beyond the sectorality of current research practice.
U.S. Global Change Research Program webpage that provides a report that describes the results of a workshop that addressed the challenge of developing coupled modeling and analysis of interdependent energy, land, and water systems.
The USDA Office of the Chief Economist Climate Change Program Office webpage provides food security and related information.
Trees for life: The Ecosystem Service Contribution of Trees to Food Production and Livelihoods in the Tropics
Despite expanding interest in ecosystem service research over the past three decades, in-depth understanding of the contribution of forests and trees to food production and livelihoods remains limited. This review synthesizes the current evidence base examining the contribution of forest and trees to agricultural production and livelihoods in the tropics, where production often occurs within complex land use mosaics that are increasingly subjected to concomitant climatic and anthropogenic pressures.
Transferable Principles for Managing the Nexus: Lessons from Historical Global Water Modelling of Central Asia
The complex relationships within the water-energy-food security nexus tend to be place-specific, increasing the importance of identifying transferable principles to facilitate implementation of a nexus approach. This paper aims to contribute transferable principles by using global model data and concepts to illustrate and analyze the water history of Central Asia. This approach builds on extensive literature about Central Asia and global change as well as recent advances in global water modeling.
This report provides a global assessment of biofuel crop production, reconstruct global patterns of biofuel crop/oil trade and determines the associated displacement of water and land use. INcluded is an evaluation food-energy tradeoff and the impact an increased reliance on biofuel would have on the number of people the planet can feed.
The Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus through the Lenses of the Value Chain and the Institutional Analysis and Development Frameworks
A number of frameworks have been used to study the water-food-energy nexus without consideration of the role of institutions in mediating environmental outcomes. This report aims to start filling the gap by combining insights from the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework and value chain analysis. Specifically food, energy and water value chains as networks of action situations (NAS) where actors' decisions depend not only on the institutional structure of a particular situation but also on the decisions made in related situations.
This article provides a set of definitions recognizing three perspectives that see the nexus as an analytical tool, governance framework and as an emerging discourse. It discusses the implications that an international transboundary context brings to the nexus and vice versa. Based on a comparative analysis of three Asian regions-Central Asia, South Asia and the Mekong Region-and their related transboundary river basins, we propose that the transboundary context has three major implications: diversity of scales and perspectives, importance of state actors and importance of politics.
The scarcity and cost of water worldwide, along with water management practices within Europe, are highlighted in this paper. The heavy dependence of energy generation on water and the similar dependence of water treatment and distribution on energy, collectively termed the water–energy nexus, is detailed. A summary of the recently launched ISO14046 Water Footprint Standard along with other benchmarking measures are outlined. In addition, a case history of managing water using the Energy Management Standard ISO50001 is discussed in detail.
The Rise and Implications of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Southeast Asia through an Environmental Justice Lens
This article maps the rise of the water-energy-food 'nexus' as a research, policy and project agenda in mainland Southeast Asia. The article introduces the concept of environmental justice into the nexus, especially where narratives, trade-offs and outcomes are contested, could make better use of how the nexus is framed, understood and acted upon.
This paper analyzes the relationship between the production of agricultural foods (cereals and vegetable oils) and the production of energy by using food. The observed increase in economic activities that use energy has had an impulse in the energy industry with higher prices. These prices make profitable the biofuel production, and this encourage the use of cereals for biofuel production, affecting the whole food chain.
This paper studied the relationship of water use for agricultural purposes in 154 countries and their economic development. In this study, the economic development in a country, as indicated by per capita GNI, was separated into 4 income groups, based on the World Bank criteria: (1) high income; (2) upper-middle income; (3) lower-middle income; and (4) low income. The results of the study revealed that water use for agricultural purposes usually takes the highest proportion of water consumption in low, lower-middle, and upper-middle income countries.
The Effect of Energy Constraints on Water Allocation Decisions: The Elaboration and Application of a System-Wide Economic-Water-Energy Model (SEWEM)
This is an illustrated for the case of the Aral Sea Basin (ASB) in Central Asia, where surface and groundwater supplies heavily depend on pumping and thus on energy availability. The findings underlined the over estimations of optimal water uses by a hydro-economic model that neglects energy constraints. Moreover, geographical conditions have affected the changes in optimal ratios of surface and groundwater uses and water distributions across the river basin when energy restrictions are taken into account.
The Effect of Energy Constraints on Water Allocation Decisions: The Elaboration and Application of a System-Wide Economic-Water-Energy Model (SEWEM)
This is an illustrated for the case of the Aral Sea Basin (ASB) in Central Asia, where surface and groundwater supplies heavily depend on pumping and thus on energy availability. The findings underlined the over estimations of optimal water uses by a hydro-economic model that neglects energy constraints. Moreover, geographical conditions have affected the changes in optimal ratios of surface and groundwater uses and water distributions across the river basin when energy restrictions are taken into account.
The `Seafood Gap' in the Food-Water Nexus Literature—Issues Surrounding Freshwater Use in Seafood Production Chains
This study 1) reviews freshwater use concepts as they relate to seafood production; 2) provides three cases to highlight the particular water use concerns for aquaculture, and; 3) outlines future directions to integrate seafood into the broader food-water nexus discussion. By revisiting water use concepts through a focus on seafood production systems, we highlight the key water use processes that should be considered for seafood production and offer a fresh perspective on the analysis of freshwater use in food systems more broadly.
The Water–Energy–Food Security Nexus: Challenges and Opportunities for Food Security in South Africa
The interconnectedness of water, energy and food production cycles translates into the interdependence of water, energy and food pricing. This paper interrogates the level of interconnectedness between these systems in South Africa and discusses how energy and water costs influence food prices in the country and affect the country's level of food security. In addtion this paper emphasizes that sustainable solutions to food security necessitate integrative thinking in the process of strategic planning for these resources.
This article explores the role of soil in bridging the food security gap, with special focus on North Africa. It also makes a call for more research investment in fundamental soils and water research in order to secure and maintain the roles of healthy soil for the to benefit of global economic security.
The New Environmental Security: Linking Food, Water, and Energy for Integrative and Diagnostic Social-ecological Research
Tradeoffs and interactions between food, water, and energy systems, is argued in this article to be place-based and which is illustrated by the location of study area in Alaska. Furthermore, this report describes a new framework for environmental security, one that draws food, water, and energy security into a unified socio-ecological research program.
The link between, water security and food security, are shown to be important in Romania. In agreement with the experts and considering the strategic relevance of these aspects, this report aims to stress more on the importance of investment in water infrastructure in the rural areas of Romania, to achieve the water security required for a sustainable agri-food and rural development. Highlighted, in this report are directions of integrated water management in view of a green economy.
This is an overview of the food-energy-water nexus from Dr. Noureddin Driouech (UC Berkeley). Understanding the complex relationship between water, energy and food systems has become critically important to the development of a sustainable and secure future for all nations and regions. There are many synergies and tradeoffs between water, energy use and food production. Recognizing these synergies and balancing these tradeoffs is central to jointly ensuring the availability of water, energy and food.
This paper locates the emergence of the 'water-food-energy nexus' discourse as a step in the progression of the 'development versus environment' debate, which came into focus at the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The dominant water management paradigm after Rio was not the approach of Agenda 21, the Rio Programme of Action (UNCED, 1992) but loosely based on the outcome of the Dublin International Conference on Water and the Environment (ICWE, 1992).
This study analyzed the interdisciplinary triangulation of four divergent conceptual frameworks, each relevant to diagnosing food insecurity in developing countries. Notable tensions as well as synergistic interactions between agroecology, agricultural innovation systems, social–ecological systems, and political ecology were discovered. Cross-framework interactions enhance the understanding of how sectoral and macro-economic development strategies impact on livelihoods, availability, and access.
This study explores processes that enable effective policies and practices for managing the links between water, energy, and food. Three case studies are assessed at different scales in the Mekong River basin, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe. There are considerable opportunities for improving outcomes for sustainable development by finding solutions that accommodate multiple objectives in the nexus.
This paper discusses the technological, political and socio-cultural factors central to such systemic changes, with a focus on maize as a core case study. In particular it presents and discusses two contending pathways towards more sustainable maize production and consumption: indigenous innovation and alternative pathway. The two pathways claim different environmental benefits and present different risks and political implications.
This paper presents a critical review of nexus approaches and identify potential linkages with sustainable livelihoods theory and practice, to deepen the understanding of the interrelated dynamics between human populations and the natural environment. Building upon this review, the concept of ‘environmental livelihood security’ was explored, which encompasses a balance between natural resource supply and human demand on the environment to promote sustainability – and develop an integrated nexus-livelihoods framework for examining the environmental livelihood security of a system.
This paper is designed to present an overview of sustainable integrated water resources management at global, regional, national and local level for enhanced energy production and food security in Libya.
As the world’s largest multilateral source of financing for water in developing countries, the World Bank is working closely with partners to achieve “A Water-Secure World for All,” by investing in water solutions that enable universal access, promote water security, and build resilient societies.
Food, energy, environment and water are critical systems to both people and landscapes. The FE2W Network works with decision-makers to improve the understanding of systemic risks and how to manage shocks across these systems.
Sustainable Agricultural Water Management in Pinios River Basin Using Remote Sensing and Hydrologic Modeling
The Pinios river basin is a major agricultural area in Greece, which faces environmental issues with water scarcity and nutrient pollution. Recent Earth Observation satellite data and ground truth information were combined to produce an updated land use map, focusing on irrigated crop areas. A process-based hydrological model (SWAT) was set up using the produced land use map. The model was calibrated and validated using observed streamflows and nutrient concentrations at selected gauging stations. Four irrigation and nutrient management practices related to resource efficiency (i.e.
Supporting Collaboration in Interdisciplinary Research of Water–Energy–Food Nexus by Means of Ontology Engineering
This study focus is on hydrology in the context of water–energy–food nexus. As well as ontology engineering, which is a base technology in Semantic Web Technology, as a method providing common terms, concepts, and semantics. This study discusses new hydrological insights, such as the effectiveness of ontology engineering approach in the process of collaborative research, and propose the way of ontology use contributing to interdisciplinary research through the experimental workshops of research development.
USAID is at the forefront of this water-energy-food security “nexus” approach. The Agency is working with local populations to promote smarter water and energy use, developing cutting-edge fuel-efficient technologies to irrigate crops, and exploring resource-efficient agricultural production methods. This integration is crucial to USAID’s work to usher in a sustainable future.
This policy briefing highlights the need to for an approach to manage water, energy, and food security decisions within interconnected sectors. The key message of this policy briefing include operationalize, globalize, integrate and analyze.
Simulating County-Level Crop Yields in the Conterminous United States Using the Community Land Model: The Effects of Optimizing Irrigation and Fertilization
Representing agricultural systems explicitly in Earth system models is important for understanding the water-energy-food nexus under climate change.The study applied Version 4.5 of the Community Land Model (CLM) at a 0.125 degree resolution to provide the first county-scale validation of the model in simulating crop yields over the Conterminous United States (CONUS). This study focused on corn and soybean that are both important grain crops and biofuel feedstocks (corn for bioethanol; soybean for biodiesel).
Integrated GREEN Solutions provides a wide spectrum of environmental services. i.GREENs services can be summarized into three main groups: Training and research, Environmental Consultations, and Green Products and Solutions. The scope of services includes: Renewable energy and energy conservation, water and waste water management (including waste and graywater treatment and water conservation), waste management and recycling and green buildings design and implementation.
The water, energy and food-security nexus approach put forward by the Bonn2011 Conference highlights the need for an integrative approach towards issues of water, energy and food, and puts them under a general framework of security. While acknowledging the need for urgent solutions in terms of sustainability, the nexus approach, at the same time, makes a normative claim to tackle the needs of the poorest parts of the world population.
Water and energy are vital to the prosperity of the United States. This report describes the intimate but easily overlooked connections between the two resources: energy production relies on enormous amounts of water, and developing and delivering water supplies consumes large amounts of energy. As demand for both water and energy is expected to increase with population growth, this report describes the challenges to addressing limited water and energy supplies. Obstacles exist at all scales and demand involvement of stakeholders, experts, and policymakers.
Scale Dependence of Controls on Groundwater Vulnerability in the Water–Energy–Food Nexus, California Coastal Basin Aquifer System
In the Coastal California Basin (CCB) aquifer system, the conflicts in the water-energy-food nexus are apparent because of intensive agricultural practices that have contributed to chronic nitrate− loading to groundwater. Evaluates the scale-dependent relations among source, transport, and attenuation factors that control nonpoint source nitrate− contamination in recently recharged CCB groundwater.
This study argues that the issue of sanitation and the solutions to it extends far beyond its mere access; any envisioned improvement in sanitation technology must strive to rectify the shortcomings in centralized wastewater treatment wherein end-of-pipe technologies have been favored. Illustrates that simultaneous provisioning of ‘access’ and ‘improved sanitation’ through urine diversion and resource recovery can help create multiple-win scenarios in developing countries especially in terms of health, food and water security.
Climate change will have far-reaching impacts on crop, livestock and fisheries production, and will change the prevalence of crop pests. Many of these impacts are already measurable. Climate impact studies are dominated by those on crop yields despite the limitations of climate-crop modelling, with very little attention paid to more systems components of cropping, let alone other dimensions of food security.
Water-energy-food (WEF) interconnection quantifications encounter methodological hurdles. In addition, existing calculation results are scattered across a wide collection of studies in multiple disciplines, which increases data collection and interpretation difficulties.
This website discusses Peru's GHG emissions, energy consumption, and water utilities. As Peru struggles to secure a reliable supply to meet user’s demand, more frequent and severe natural disasters pose an increasing burden on water utilities. Differences in altitudes require enormous amounts of energy to distribute the water and lead to high energy costs.
The author's approach in this publication is through a high-level reflection that explores the most pressing water challenges and highlights the innovative ways businesses are addressing these challenges. It also discusses the importance of multi-stakeholder collaboration and calls for a new approach to reporting, which integrates social and natural capital.
This paper focused on a discussion whether developing bio-energy will threaten food security in China. It constructed a general equilibrium analysis model based on demand-supply theory. The model contains two types of bio-energy resources and different factors influencing crops demand and supply.
The Pardee RAND Food-Energy-Water Interactive Index tool is a to help users visualize the relationship among the three key resources of Food-Energy-Water. FEW Index gives users a holistic view of the current status of resource provision for countries across the world. The Index can help begin to identify how different trends – for example, climate change or population growth – could affect resource security in the future.
The WEF Nexus builds on the integrated water resources management and introduces an holistic, trans-disciplinary, inclusive multi-stakeholder platform for resource allocation. The nexus platform allows the identification of local and site specific tradeoffs and hotspots, which facilitate dialogue among stakeholders. From among those hotspots, the role of soils in global water and food security, and the vital function of soil as a structured, dynamic, natural, organized system and of green water to food and water securities is explored.
This website created by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) examines the Water-food-energy-ecosystem nexus.
This report provides a preliminary analysis of water management within a critical national context. Pakistan's Water-Security Nexus is the focus of this report.
This paper is inspired by theory related to the water-food-energy-climate nexus and suggests a novel model, suited for analyzing carbon sequestration in dry land agriculture using irrigation. The model is applied specifically to photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) systems for irrigation of grasslands in China.
Energy Water Food Nexus (EWFN) presents a valuable approach to achieving food security with a particular focus on sustainably balancing the growing demand for food with the constrained production capacity enabling supply streams. Three main pathways to overcome food security challenges and the role of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) were identified: employing sustainable production methods in agriculture, changing diets, and reducing waste in all stages of the food chain.
The CWC studies how the water, food, and energy sectors are interrelated and how climate affects the relationship. On the applied side, the CWC aims to promote water and energy savings in the agricultural sector in water-stressed farming regions. Work has been done with governments in India to reform existing energy subsidies by incentivizing electricity savings that save both water and energy without decreasing crop yields. The CWC also develops seasonal forecasts to guide decision-making in the water and energy sectors.
The changing climate and concerns over food security are prompting a new look at the supply chain reliability of products derived from agriculture, and the potential role of contract farming as a mechanism to address climate and price risk while contributing toward crop diversification and water use efficiency is also emerging. This study provides a simple and stylized model for farmers’ decision making process for crop planning and water management in the contract farming context.
This study has evaluated the opportunities, barriers and current trends for renewable energy use in order to identify priority areas where ARENA could have the most potential impact in influencing improved renewable energy use within the sector. The study has identified a number of renewable energy opportunities relating to both the urban and agricultural water sectors, each having their own unique characteristics and advantages and which are outlined in this report.
The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze the water, energy, and food nexus and regions of study, nexus keywords and stakeholders in order to understand the current state of nexus research.
This report analyses the key opportunities that renewable energy offers, specifically to address the key challenges posed by the water, energy and food nexus.
This report traces the debate, analysis and action on the water, food and energy (WFE) security nexus. Considering the complex interactions of these three resources will require new institutional capacity in both industrialized and developing countries. For the nexus approach to achieve the twin goals of human well-being and green growth, sustainability must move center-stage, with attention given to ecosystem services.
This website examines the "nexus" of where food, water and energy systems intersect. It takes water (lots of it) to create food and energy. It also takes energy to move, heat and treat water and to produce food, and sometimes we even use food crops as a source of energy. Resources are provided to find out how anyone - from a single person to an entire nation - can make more sustainable choices with nexus thinking.
The Pacific Institute is a global water think tank that combines science-based thought leadership with active outreach to influence local, national, and international efforts in developing sustainable water policies.The Pacific Institute conducts research on various facets of the water-energy nexus to better understand the barriers and opportunities for integration and to develop tools to promote integrated water and energy policy and decision-making.
The Nexus approach highlights the interdependencies between achieving water, energy and food security for human well-being, e. g. basics services and economic development, while ensuring ecologically sustainable use of globally essential resources. It is based on an understanding of the synergies and regulated negotiation of fair trade-offs between competing uses of water, land and energy-related resources.
This report provides overview information about the nexus between water and energy and provides a summary of state legislation addressing this issue.
This website provides resources on water and energy. Water is needed for energy development and generation, and energy is required to supply, use, and treat drinking water and wastewater. Water and energy are also essential to our health, quality of life, and economic growth, and demand for both these resources continues to rise.
This website examines why the water-food-energy nexus is central to sustainable development. Demand for all three is increasing, driven by a rising global population, rapid urbanization, changing diets and economic growth. Agriculture is the largest consumer of the world’s freshwater resources, and more than one-quarter of the energy used globally is expended on food production and supply.
This energy-water nexus website advocates for an integrated approach to energy-water planning.
The Energy-Water Nexus Crosscut Team (originally called the Water-Energy Tech Team) was formed in late 2012 to address these issues. In June 2014, DOE published The Water-Energy Nexus: Challenges and Opportunities, which laid the foundation for subsequent work for the Department. In 2015, DOE hosted an Energy-Water Nexus Roundtable Series that engaged stakeholders from industry, academia, utilities, state and local governments, National Laboratories, and other federal agencies in focused discussions about the energy-water nexus.
Opportunities For Knowledge Co-Production Across The Energy-Food-Water Nexus: Making Interdisciplinary Approaches Work For Better Climate Decision Making
The relationship between the energy-food-water nexus and the climate is non-linear, multi-sectoral and time sensitive, incorporating aspects of complexity and risk in climate related decision-making. This paper seeks to explore how knowledge co-production can help identify opportunities for building more effective, sustainable, inclusive and legitimate decision making processes on climate change. This would enable more resilient responses to climate risks impacting the nexus while increasing transparency, communication and trust among key actors.
Onsite Food Waste Processing As An Opportunity To Conserve Water In A Medical Facility Case Study, Abu Dhabi
This paper presents the case for soil and water conservation combined with waste recycling strategies in a desert type climate healthcare environment, which is based on the need for Abu Dhabi to decrease desalinated potable water consumption and increase its waste recycling rate to reduce environmental impact.
This report describes how USAID is partnering with Jordan to tackle issues arising from the water-energy-food security nexus.
This report provides an overview of food security and nutrition from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
This Renewables Readiness Assessment (RRA) was undertaken in co-operation with the Philippine government. This assessment identifies barriers and proposes key actions to strengthen policy, regulatory and institutional frameworks in order to accelerate renewable energy deployment in the Philippines.
This paper reviews current practices by national and subnational governments around the world that aim to increase consumer awareness, understanding, and exposure to electric vehicles.
Technology uptake, costs, and benefits under a next-phase passenger car efficiency program in Brazil
This report evaluates the level of technology adoption, costs, and efficiency improvement associated with alignment with the European Union’s 2021 emissions target of 95 gCO2/km (equivalent to 1.27 MJ/km) for new passenger cars in Brazil in 2023.
100% Percent Electricity Generation through Renewable Energy by 2050: Assessment of Sri Lanka's Power Sector
This report has been developed with the purpose of designing and proposing scenarios and mechanisms through which the goal of 100 percent RE in electricity generation by 2050 can be achieved. It details among other things the plausible electricity generation mix as well as financial interventions required for Sri Lanka to achieve its goal while highlighting the numerous technical and economic challenges the country is likely to face on its road to a 100 percent RE power sector
This report looks at various tender processes and community renewable energy projects across the LAC region and proposes amechanism that could be used to encourage community involvement in renewable energy tendering process.
This report discusses Pacific island countries (PICs) need to invest in renewable energy development to fight climate change and rid their reliance on fossil fuels that cause a substantial drain on their gross domestic product every year.
Renewable energy has long been used in South East Europe, whether as fuelwood for heating or in the form of hydroelectric power generation. More recently, governments from Slovenia to Ukraine have pledged to shift to renewables to replace ageing fossil-based energy installations and reduce carbon-dioxide emissions. Clean, sustainable power sources should drive future economic growth.
Emerging Climate Change and Development Topics for Energy Sector Transformation: An EC-LEDS White Paper Series
This paper explores the role of DG, with a high renewable energy contribution, in supporting low emission climate-resilient development. The paper presents potential impacts on development (via energy access), greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation, and climate resilience directly associated with DG, as well as specific actions that may enhance or increase the likelihood of climate and development benefits.
This report attempts to systematically analyze what finance countries are actually committing to energy access and what is known about the disbursement of development finance for energy access or the challenges facing energy access enterprises in delivering modern energy services to more people, more affordably. It is intended for government leaders, public and private finance players, and energy access enterprises at the international and domestic levels that all play critical roles in catalyzing action on access to electricity and clean cooking.
Energizing Equality: The Importance of Integrating Gender Equality Principles in National Energy Policies and Frameworks
This assessment was conducted to identify and understand the degree to which gender considerations have been addressed in energy policies, plans and strategies worldwide. The authors’ findings offer insights into the ways in which governments are recognizing gender considerations in the context of their energy policymaking and planning and trends with respect to key cross-cutting gender issues and regional comparisons.
This report re-examines the findings and recommendations of a major 'nexus' research-for-development project in the Mekong region. It shows that socio-political regimes constrain societal investment in three 'nodes' of the nexus previously identified as critical to manage sustainably: energy efficiency, wild-capture fisheries, and diversified smallholder agriculture. This report discusses implications for the 'nexus' as a new policy agenda and offer three propositions for ongoing inquiry and inclusive practice.
Next Generation Biorefineries will solve the Food, Biofuels, and Environmental Trilemma in the Energy–Food–Water Nexus
The goal of this opinion article is to clarify the future roles of biomass and biorefineries using quantitative data other than adjective words. In most scenarios, human beings could have enough biomass resource from plant photosynthesis for meeting the three goals at the same time: feeding 9 billion people, providing renewable materials, and producing transportation biofuels that could replace nearly all fossil fuel-based liquid fuels used in the land transportation in 2050.
This report identifies potential natural resource stresses (in terms of aggregate availability, absolute prices, or rapid price changes) and analyzes their likely impact on the United States and states/regions of interest to the United States. The report also explores how these stresses will interact with one another and other pre-existing conditions, including poverty, social tensions, environmental degradation, ineffectual leadership, and weak political institutions.
Multi-objective Optimization for Analysis of Changing Trade-offs in the Nepalese Water-Energy-Food Nexus with Hydropower Development
This report proposes a spatially explicit framework that couples two well-established water and power system models to develop a decision support tool combining multiple nexus objectives in a linear objective function. To demonstrate our framework, we compare eight Nepalese power development scenarios based on five nexus objectives: minimization of power deficit, maintenance of water availability for irrigation to support food self-sufficiency, reduction in flood risk, maintenance of environmental flows, and maximization of power export.
The hydropower-food supply nexus in the Mekong River basins is assessed here in an influence model. This shows how altering one variable has consequent effects throughout the basin system. Options for strategic interventions to maximize benefits while minimizing negative impacts are identified that would enable national and sub-national policy makers to take more informed decisions across the hydropower, water and food supply sectors.
Modeling Global Water Use for the 21st Century: The Water Futures and Solutions (WFaS) Initiative and its Approaches
This study assesses the state of the art for estimating and projecting water use regionally and globally in a consistent manner. It provides an overview of different approaches, the uncertainty, strengths and weaknesses of the various estimation methods, types of management and policy decisions for which the current estimation methods are useful. This study discusses additional information most needed to be able to improve water use estimates and be able to assess a greater range of management options across the water-energy-climate nexus.
This paper discusses the Columbia Water Center’s (in conjunction with the Millennium Villages Project in Mali), the developed and tested economical, socially sustainable and scalable water allocation approaches that improved farmer livelihoods in the village clusters of Toya and Tiby.
This paper focuses on a collection of methods that can be used to analyze the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus.
Mapping Water Provisioning Services to Support the Ecosystem–Water–Food–Energy Nexus in the Danube River Basin
In this study we aimed to map and assess water provisioning services and associated benefits to support the ecosystem–water–food–energy nexus by taking into account environmental flow requirements for riverine ecosystems using the hydrological model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We developed a framework that includes indicators of renewable water (capacity of ecosystem to provide water) and water use (service flow) and we applied it in the Danube river basin over the period 1995–2004.
In efforts to better inform the energy-water nexus dialogue, this paper builds on and extends the previously noted work in three important ways. First, water used in energy production is mapped across multiple economies and multiple use cases (e.g., thermoelectric power, fuel processing) at a subnational level to distinguish variability within economies. Second, the water used in energy production is put in context by drawing comparison with published measures of water risk (WRI 2015).
Managing the Food, Water, and Energy Nexus for Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in South Asia
A framework is suggested for cross-sectoral coordination and managing the nexus challenges in South Asia.
Economics, energy markets and policies, system performance, environmental regulations, carbon emissions, and social impacts are all important components of the energy-water-land nexus. NREL’s analysis, datasets, and advanced integrated modeling capabilities help illuminate the connections between energy, environment, economy, security, and quality of life.
This paper addresses the state-of-knowledge of complex adaptive systems -- including their operation via cycles of innovation and co-adaptation -- to sustain continuous, whole-system complexity and full-functionality. Also explores the integrative management of energy, water and food systems –WEF Security Nexus -- as catalyst for living within complex systems; and how integrative management builds self-reliance and local eco-entrepreneurs essential to achieving the global goal of sustainability.
The abstract argues that expanding agroecological principles, tools, and technologies and enhancing biological diversity can address soil degradation and biodiversity loss due challenges due to interconnected food, energy and water systems and achieve better socioeconomic outcomes.
This paper analyzes institutional “problem sheds” that shape the implementation of nexus initiatives in arid regions of the United States, the Persian/Arabian Gulf, and China. Analysis reveals how nexus approaches are conditioned by property rights regimes, economic growth strategies based on resource extraction, and the ability to externalize environmental costs to other regions and states.
The Water and Wastewater Companies for Climate Mitigation (WaCCliM) project is demonstrating that the water sector can reduce greenhouse gas emissions: in the short-term by improving operational efficiency and adopting energy efficiency measures; in the long-term by proactively upgrading and reforming their drinking water and wastewater systems. Water utilities working with WaCCliM are becoming sector leaders, and are seizing the opportunity to become more efficient and effective in an uncertain future.
This blog post discusses an agricultural irrigation project in Mali that increased the access to water to over 300 farms and 3,000 residents
The Water, Energy & Food Security Resource Platform is an independent information and facilitating platform. Highlighting the interdependencies between achieving water, energy and food security for human well-being, e. g. basics services and economic development, while ensuring ecologically sustainable use of globally essential resources.
Providing the broad analysis that has been lacking on the interactions of renewables within water and food sectors. Building on existing literature, the study examines both global and country-specific cases to highlight how renewable energy can address the trade-offs, helping to address the world’s pressing water, energy and food challenges.
While reservoir operations for hydroelectricity production might support irrigation, there are also well-known cases where hydroelectricity production reduces water availability for irrigated food production. This study assesses these relationships at the global level using machine-learning techniques and multi-source datasets.
How the Nexus of Water/Food/Energy can be Seen with the Perspective of People Well Being and the Italian BES Framework
This article looks at the nexus through the lens of the Italian BES (Benessere Equo e Sostenibile) modeling framework. While focusing on food, linkages with water and energy are reviewed and investigated.
Feed the Future (U.S. Government's Global Hunger and Food Security Initiative) webpage that provides basic information for cooperation on water usage, access to irrigation, addressing climate change, insuring farmers against drought, water for food/water for health, growing more with less, and smarter farming to conserve water.
This paper argues that given the unique regional and sector challenges of food, water and energy security, their nexus must be deconstructed to find effective, contextualized solutions. And governance challenges are at the heart of the nexus in each region.
A Intelligence Community Assessment report that discusses the topic of global food security as it relates to increasing food security, the regions at risk, improving food access, and the implications for the United States.
This paper establishes tradeoff frontiers (TFs) as a method useful in illustrating the system-level tradeoffs between allocating water for food and water for energy. This paper illustrates how TFs can be used to (1) show how scarcity in water resources affects the tradeoffs between food and energy and (2) explore the political and social constraints that can move production away from what is feasible technically.
The papers presents three fundamental narratives of the United Nations Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) initiative to reinforce the argument for a global nexus perspective aimed at sustainable development.
Food, Fracking, and Freshwater: The Potential for Markets and Cross-sectoral Investments to Enable Water Conservation
This analysis employs an original water and cost model to evaluate the water market in Texas and the potential for cross-sectoral collaboration on water efficiency improvements through a case study of the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas.
Food, Energy, and Water Transformative Research Opportunities in the Mathematical and Physical Sciences
A report by the Mathematical and Physical Sciences Advisory Committee (MPSAC) Subcommittee on Food Security. The report addresses the areas of ensuring a sustainable water supply for agriculture, “Closing the Loop” for nutrient life cycles, crop protection, innovations to prevent waste of food and energy, sensors for food security and safety, and maximizing biomass conversion to fuels, chemicals, food and materials.
This assessment was conducted to identify and understand the degree to which gender considerations have been addressed in energy policies, plans and strategies worldwide. The findings reported offer insights into the ways in which governments are recognizing gender considerations in the context of their energy policymaking and planning and trends with respect to key cross-cutting gender issues and regional comparisons.
This paper quantifies this water dependency with respect to food consumption in nine cities located in the five Nordic countries (Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Iceland), by means of the water footprint concept. Nordic urban dwellers can save a lot of water by shifting to a healthy diet.
This paper seeks to approach the paradigm of human security from the perspectives of food security, which brings in the discussions of the new patterns of policies adopted in six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
This guide aims to help the staff of UNIDO’s Energy and Climate Change (ECC) Branch apply a gender perspective into their work and, more specifically, to mainstream gender throughout the project cycle. The guide can also be useful for national and local counterparts, agencies, international and private-sector partners, and individual experts who work closely with the ECC Branch.
Food Waste to Energy: How Six Water Resource Recovery Facilities are Boosting Biogas Production and the Bottom Line
This report presents the co-digestion practices, performance, and the experiences of six such Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs). The report describes the types of food waste co-digested and the strategies—specifically, the tools, timing, and partnerships—employed to manage the material. Additionally, the report describes how the facilities manage wastewater solids, providing information about power production, biosolids use, and program costs.
Faltering Fisheries and Ascendant Aquaculture: Implications for Food and Nutrition Security in Bangladesh
This paper evaluates data on fish consumption collected in Bangladesh by the International Food Policy Research Institute in 1996/7 and 2006/7 to assess changing patterns of fish consumption and their implications for food and nutrition security.
This publication illustrates an encouraging variety both in terms of bioenergy systems and geographical distribution, and they all show how solutions can be found that produce bioenergy while contributing positively to the state of water. These experiences are also meant to serve as sources of inspiration that other bioenergy producers can use to enhance the sustainability of their own activities.
The aim of this study was to evaluate virtual water export through five crops (barley, rice, maize, soybeans, and wheat) in terms of the external virtual water rate, within and outside of Asia from 2000 to 2012, and in comparison with that within and outside the European Union. These results provide information necessary for the development of an integrated water strategy in Asia, and could convince the main Asian importers of the risks of serious dependency on foreign water resources.
Understand The Landscape: Tracking Finance for Electricity and Clean Cooking Access in High-Impact Countries
This report, which covers both electricity and clean cooking, aims to advance the understanding of finance directed towards the developing world’s energy sectors. It covers the 20 developing countries known as the high-impact countries that together are home to 80 per cent of those living without access to modern energy globally.
Ethics, Sustainability and the Water, Energy, Food Nexus Approach – A New Integrated Assessment of Urban Systems
Integrated assessment approach based on the Nexus City Index we combine an ethical derivation with participatory and accounting tools to grasp and operationalize the complexity of urban areas from a bottom-up and top-down perspective in order to derive a holistic picture of the nexus challenges in urban areas.
This study explores the environmental sustainability issues in the food–energy–water nexus by considering breakfast cereals manufactured by one of the world’s largest producers, Kellogg Europe. A life cycle assessment has been carried out for these purposes with the aim of helping the Company to integrate environmental sustainability considerations into the design of their products and packaging.
In order to assess the environmental impact of food consumption, a lifecycle assessment (LCA)-based approach has been applied to a basket of products, selected as being representative of EU consumption. The environmental impact of the average food consumption of European citizens was assessed using the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) methodology.
This Slide presentation is on the interconnectivity of energy, water, agriculture/food, and ecosystem services and global trends that affect those relationships.
Slide presentation on the energy-water nexus' challenges and opportunities. Include information on present and future challenges and potential solutions to those.
This slide presentation covers the energy-water nexus in the U.S.
This work proposed an environmental input-output analysis based methodological model to depict the nexus and reflect its dualistic impacts on the nature, which was applied into Beijing's case. Results show the agriculture and manufacturing sectors had the higher nexus intensities, playing as major energy consumers with higher embodied water consumption via the urban industrial chain.
This report discusses the current electric energy matrix in Brazil as it relates to production and consumption and different sources of generation.
Disaggregating Orders of Water Scarcity - The Politics of Nexus in the Wami-Ruvu River Basin, Tanzania
This article considers the dilemma of managing competing uses of surface water in ways that respond to social, ecological and economic needs.
Connecting the Resource Nexus to Basic Urban Service Provision – with a Focus on Water-Energy Interactions in New York City
This paper proposes and applies a technology-independent “reference resource-to-service system” framework for concurrent evaluation of urban water and energy system interventions and their ‘nexus’ or ‘interlinkages’. In a concrete application, data that approximate New York City conditions are used to evaluate a limited set of interventions in the residential sector, spanning from low-flow toilet shifts to extensive green roof installations.
This report argues that connecting the nexus to decision-making processes requires: i) rethinking the boundaries of nexus analysis vis-à-vis other sectors and levels; ii) elaboration of shared principles that can guide decision-making towards policy coherence − or an appropriate form of fragmentation − in different contexts; iii) viewing policy coherence as a continuous process of changing values and perception rather than as an outcome.
Climate Cange Vulnerability in the Food, Energy, and Water Nexus: Concerns for Agricultural Production in Arizona and its Urban Export Supply
A dynamic simulation model of the food-energy-water nexus in Arizona to assess the potential impacts of increasing temperatures and disruptions to energy and water supplies on crop irrigation requirements, on-farm energy use, and yield. This model identifies critical points of intersection between energy, water, and agricultural systems and quantify expected increases in resource use and yield loss.
This paper performs a country-level quantitative assessment of this nexus in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The results show a highly skewed coupling with a relatively weak dependence of energy systems on fresh water, but a strong dependence of water abstraction and production systems on energy. The results suggest that policy makers should explicitly consider energy implications in water intensive food imports and future restructuring of water demand. This paper will help in making more integrated decisions on water and energy infrastructure systems.
This review illustrates the differential experiences of men and women and how vulnerability, adaptive capacity, exposure and sensitivity to climatic stimuli are gendered in distinct ways between and among livestock holding communities.
This self-paced course was developed for social development and energy specialists, policymakers, practitioners and members of civil society interested in learning about the linkages between gender equality and energy using recent research, data and country-level experiences.
Chinese State-Owned Enterprise Investment in Mekong Hydropower: Political and Economic Drivers and their Implications Across the Water, Energy, Food Nexus
This paper examines the political and economic drivers surrounding Chinese State-Owned Enterprises’ (SOE) activities in Mekong Basin hydropower, and the implications of these forces across the water, energy and food nexus.
China's Input-Output Efficiency of Water-Energy-Food Nexus Based on the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Model
Based on the interaction of the water-energy-food nexus (WEF-Nexus) with population system, economic system, and environmental system, this paper builds the input output index system at the city level. Using the input output index system, this report evaluates the WEF-Nexus input-output efficiency with the data envelopment analysis data envelopment analysis model.
This study provides an introduction into the concept of the resource nexus, general limitations of energy systems modelling tools and an overview of specific tools that have been or could potentially be used in addressing the nexus.
A fact sheet from the U.S. Government's Global Hunger & Food Security Initiative "Feed the Future" on climate change and food security.
Sustainable development and growth can be achieved by better management of the world's ecosystems and a more strategic use of water, land and other natural resources. Water, energy and food resources are not spread evenly across the Southern African Development Community (SADC) resulting in an imbalance in endowments. Broadening the lens of integrated and regional resources planning in SADC may increase the resilience of the region and optimize the use of limited natural resources.
Building a Safer World: Toolkit for Integrating GBV Prevention and Response into USAID Energy and Infrastructure Projects
This tool kit was developed to support implementation of the U.S. Strategy to Prevent and Respond to Gender-based Violence Globally. It provides guidance and resources for USAID technical and program officers to integrate gender-based violence prevention and response into energy and infrastructure projects.
Biofuels and Food Security. A Report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition
A report from the High Level Panel of Experts (HLPE) that discusses biofuel policies, biofuels and the technology frontier, biofuels, food prices, hunger and poverty, biofuels and land, and biofuels and bioenergy: socio-economic impacts and development perspectives. This report provides recommendations for each topic presented.
Balancing Ecosystem Services with Energy and Food Security – Assessing Trade-Offs from Reservoir Operation and Irrigation Investments in Kenya's Tana Basin
This research seeks firstly to identify and help decision-makers visualize reservoir management strategies which result in the best possible (Pareto-optimal) allocation of benefits between sectors. Secondly, it seeks to show how trade-offs between achievable benefits shift with the implementation of proposed new rice, cotton and biofuel irrigation projects.
This paper introduces global resources challenges and their risks and shifts in what society defines as global securities. The paper will then introduce the water-energy-food nexus as a resource integration platform and will highlight green water as a hotspot in this nexus.
An Urban Systems Framework to Assess the Trans-Boundary Food-Energy-Water Nexus: Implementation in Delhi, India
This paper develops a generalizable systems framework to analyze the food-energy-water (FEW) nexus from an urban systems perspective, connecting in- and trans-boundary interactions, quantifying multiple environmental impacts of community-wide FEW provisioning to cities, and visualizing FEW supply-chain risks posed to cities by the environment.
This study developed an integrated model, capturing the interactions between water, energy, and food (WEF) at end-use level at a household scale. The model is based on a survey of 419 households conducted to investigate WEF over winter and summer for the city of Duhok, Iraq.
An Optimization Framework for the Climate, Land, Energy, and Water (CLEWS) Nexus by a Discrete Optimization Model
An optimization model examines the temporal and spatial integration of the Climate, Land, Energy, and Water nexus elements in order to provide optimal infrastructure capacity expansion of essential commodities, and periodic optimal supply of these commodities for a given region.
Algal Food and Fuel Coproduction can Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions while Improving Land and Water-Use Efficiency
This paper examines the tradeoffs associated with producing fuel and food from algae at the energy–food–water–climate nexus.
Achieving Food Security in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia through Innovation: Potential Role of Agricultural Extension
This paper suggests substitute expertise and methodologies that can be engaged by Saudi Arabia under prevalent situation, which can be helpful to expand national food fabrication to achieve food security in the Kingdom.
This paper describes the Pardee RAND Food-Energy-Water Index (FEW Index) and what types of questions the FEW index can answer.
This paper critiques current policies and practices to explore the interdependencies at the water-energy-food nexus. It considers how current land uses and related policies affect the UK’s resilience to climate change, setting out an agenda for research and practice relevant to stakeholders in land-use management, policy and modelling.
This report describes methodology for preparing a series of nexus assessments of selected river basins under the Water Convention of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).
This report is a summary and decomposition of water use efficiency of crop production variations in 87 countries from 1990 until 2007.
The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze the water, energy, and food nexus and regions (Asia, Europe, Oceania, North America, South America, Middle East and Africa) of study, nexus keywords and stakeholders in order to understand the current state of nexus research.
This article demonstrates the feasibility of the Fast Track (FT) approach to deal with the temporal dimension of crop water footprint and provide estimates of the temporal variability of crop water footprint (CWF). The method is tested by comparing the annual CWF country values of wheat, rice, maize, and soybean obtained through the FT approach with those obtained by a detailed model accounting for the changes of yield and evapotranspiration over time.
Food, Water, and Energy Security in South Asia: a Nexus Perspective from the Hindu Kush Himalayan Region
Using secondary data from diverse sources, this paper explores the food, water, and energy nexus from a regional dimension, emphasizing the role of Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) ecosystem services in sustaining food, water, and energy security downstream. The analysis reveals that the issues and challenges in the food, water, and energy sectors are interwoven in many complex ways and cannot be managed effectively without cross-sectoral integration.
To place future discussions of sustainable mobility on a firmer technical basis, this report discusses the results of a cradle-to-grave assessment of water withdrawal and water consumption for the gasoline internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) and battery electric vehicle (BEV) variants of the 2012 Ford Focus.
This document from the International Energy Agency that provides an overview of the water-energy nexus. Topics include: Water for energy, Energy for water, and Stress points and solutions to the water-energy nexus.
Water for Electricity in India: A Multi-model Study of Future Challenges And Linkages to Climate Change Mitigation
Based on the results from five energy-economic modeling teams, the paper explores the implications of economic growth, power plant cooling policies, and electricity CO2 emissions reductions on water withdrawals and consumption in India.
UNESCO’s contributions to rethinking sustainability globally include a wide range of projects. Grouped under five main themes covered by our mandate, our actions reflect the multifaceted nature of climate challenges and associated mitigation and adaptation solutions. These include: Climate Knowledge, Science and Culture, Climate Change Education and Public Awareness, Climate Change and Water Security, The Ocean and Climate Change, and UNESCO Sites: A Climate Change Observatory.
This wealth of publications is reviewed in an endeavor to: (1) reveal the lines of justification for the need of the water energy food nexus (WEF nexus) debate and (2) identify the range of tools for analyzing the interdependent resource issues of the nexus using an integrated framework of science and policy. There are three drivers behind the emergence of the nexus thinking. These are a) increasing resource interlinks due to growing scarcities, b) recent resource supply crises, and c) failures of sector-driven management strategies.
The purpose of this paper is to present the current energy situation in the Palestinian Territories, evaluate the potential of renewable energies in meeting part of the energy demand and discuss the challenges and benefits of using these types of energies.
This report provides an overview of the nexus, including nexus opportunity areas from the German Foreign Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development. It also includes several nexus initiatives that have been undertaken since the Bonn 2011 Conference. Finally it provides information on implementing the nexus perspective in German development cooperation, including examples of projects and nexus dialogues.
The goal of this study was to explore opportunities to colocate solar infrastructures and agricultural crops to maximize the efficiency of land and water use. The study investigated the energy inputs/outputs, water use, greenhouse gas emissions, and economics of solar installations in northwestern India in comparison to aloe vera cultivation, another widely promoted and economically important land use in these systems.
This publication highlights Nepal’s energy sector performance, major development constraints, and government development plans and strategy. It outlines the future support strategy of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), whose main focus is to make the country’s energy sector a key driver of inclusive economic growth.
The purpose of the toolkit is to assist staff and consultants of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in conceptualizing and designing gender-responsive projects in the energy sector. ADB’s Policy on Gender and Development mandates its investments in all sectors to promote gender mainstreaming. ADB projects categorized with “gender mainstreaming” require a gender action plan (GAP) and gender targets and indicators in the project design and monitoring framework. The tool kit provides tips to designing the GAP and gender targets and indicators relevant to the specific subsector context.
This guidance note, which was prepared for the regional and country offices of UN Women and UNIDO, provides an overview of issues related to gender equality, women’s empowerment and sustainable energy. It aims to provide guidance for UN programming and work with policymakers around sustainable energy that integrates the gender dimensions.
With this database for small-scale off-grid sustainable energy products and components, compare and examine the challenges associated with navigating sustainable energy markets in 80 developing countries.
This briefing note discusses the key elements of the gender-energy topic and provides specific examples of how to integrate gender considerations in energy policy dialogue and the project cycle.
This application note provides an overview of relevant characteristics and considerations regarding commercial and tertiary sector photovoltaic (PV) power plants that are 100 kW to 2 MW in capacity. It is aimed at potential investors, including industrial and tertiary sector companies, communities and financial institutions. The publication is intended to fill the gap between basic papers for generalists and analyses that are very technical.
The report analyses challenges and solutions, and it provides recommendations on how to adapt electricity market design to high shares of variable renewable energy. It focuses on two aspects of liberalized power systems: (1) wholesale market design and (2) distribution networks and distributed energy resources.
This toolkit is designed to help financial institutions scale up their deployment of capital into energy efficiency.
This working paper undertakes econometric analysis to assess the impacts of climate mitigation policies and the quality of the investment environment on investment and innovation in renewable power in OECD and G20 countries. It also assesses how countries’ investment environments interact with climate mitigation policies to influence investment and patent activity in renewable power.
A Powering Agriculture Guide on Integrating Gender in the Deployment of Clean Energy Solutions for Agriculture
This document is intended to help unlock the potential demand for clean energy solutions (CES) among women farmers, who have been under-targeted and underserved. It provides best practices on how to integrate gender at all levels—individual community, and within CES organization. The guide includes a checklist that can help in developing a gender-responsive strategy to increase the sales of CES technology to both female and male clients.
Alternatives to Bank Finance: Role of Carbon Tax and Hometown Investment Trust Funds in Developing Green Energy Projects in Asia
The paper provides a theoretical model for combining utilization of a carbon tax and a new way of financing risky capital (i.e., hometown investment trust funds).
This document provides a high-level map of pathways for municipal energy supply transformation that is structured around a three-step process for cities to identify a pathway forward: (1) map the city’s energy landscape, (2) identify available strategies and (3) organize for energy transformation.
This report provides updates on auctions as a mechanism for price discovery and market development. Chapter 1 gives the highlights of renewable energy auctions held or announced in 2016. Chapter 2 reviews the main trends and analyses the evolution of prices resulting from auctions. Price determinants, analyzed in Chapter 3, include access to finance and country-specific conditions, investor confidence and a conducive environment, other policies aimed at supporting renewable energy development, and auction design elements.
This book steps into the new world of broad-scale and locally relevant policy experimentation. Chapters focus on the political economy of clean energy transition and emphasize specific issues encountered in both developed and developing countries. The authors contribute diversity of experience drawn from all major regions of the world, representing a compendium of what has been learned from recent initiatives—mostly at the country level—to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
The guides provided on this website covers power quality, energy efficiency, renewable energy systems, electrical networks and electricity for buildings. The site provides thematic overviews of more than 70 published application notes in 10 themes.
Despite adequate liquidity, commercial banks in the Pacific are often reluctant to extend business credit, which is a serious constraint to business operations and broader economic development. The Pacific Private Sector Development Initiative—a regional technical assistance facility cofinanced by ADB, the Government of Australia, and the Government of New Zealand—has undertaken landmark secured transaction reforms in eight Pacific Island countries.
This report assesses near-term electric vehicle market trends to inform on how governments might optimally evolve their electric vehicle incentive programs to sustain market growth. The authors analyze prevailing per-vehicle purchasing incentives and how government outlays increase to maintain these incentives as the market grows. They then assess how electric vehicle costs—for varying electric ranges—are reduced in the approximate time frame of 2020–2025 due to increased battery production.